Skip to main content

Full text of "American History Stories"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

TX 973.4 .C432a V.I 
Pratt- Ch ad wJck. Mara L 
American historv stories / 

Stanford Uriiversity Libraries 

3 6105 04934 2517 














By educational publishing compani, 



SEP 1 8 1911 



Fkontisfiecsb, , . Colnifibus. 


Long Ago, 5 

Some Wonderful Sea Islands, 8 

The Boy Columbus, 11 

Columbus and King John II. of Portugal, 14 

Columbus and Isabella, Queen of Spain, 18 

The Voyage, 22 

The People of the Island, 24 

Last Years of Columbus's Life, 24 

Americus Vespucius, 26 

English Explorers, 27 

Sir Francis Drake, 30 

Sir Walter Raleigh, 35 

Fate of Sir Walter Raleigh 89 

The Northmen, 40 

FirstViewof the Pacific, 42 

First Voyage Around the World, 43 

The Colonies, 46 

Captain John Smith, 48 

Plymouth Colony, 63 

A Chapter of English History, 64 

Puritans and Pilgrims, 65 

The Pilgrims in America, 67 

The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers (^Poetry) 59 




The Pilgrims at Work 61 

The Puritans 03 

Customs in the Colony 65 

The First Christmas Tree in New England 70 

Salem Witclicraft 75 

Mistress Anne Hibbins 78 

Story of Goody Glover 81 

Religious Troubles in America Si 

The Quakers 87 

Quakers in America 88 

Mistresss Anne Hutchinson 91 

Mary Dyer 94 

William Penn 98 

Pen n*s Honest Dealings "with the Indians 101 

The White Feather 105 

The Dutch in America 108 

Maryland 115 

Georgia 117 

A Review 121 

The Old Thirteen (Poetry) 124 

Indian Troubles 125 

Indian Stories 127 

Samoset 127 

Samoset's Second Visit 128 

Massasoit 129 

The Snake-Skin 130 

Massasoit's Illness 131 

The Pequots 132 

King Philip's War 135 

Annawon , . . . . 138 

Lady Yeardley's Guest (Poetry) 141 

Marblehead 146 

Farmer Dustin li 




French and Indian War 

Burning of Acadia 

George Washington 

General Braddock 

The Attack 

Wolfe and Montcalm 

How the Colonies Grew United 

Charter Oak 

America Before the Revolution 

Harvard College 

Lucy Downing 

Pine-Tree Shillings 

A New England Sabbath 

The New England Primer 

Manner of Dress 

Vinland {Poetry) 

Thanksgiving Day (^Poetry) 





MANY, many years ago, O, so many tliat I fear you could 
' not count them even, this country in which wc live waa 
one vast expanse of woodland, and fields and mountains 
and swamps. 

There were no cities, no villages, not even a single house 
to break the view across the wild fields. 

The whole country looked as it docs now in those parts 
which have not yet hoen built up. 

Did you ever stand on a high hill and look off across the 


country where not one house was to be seen ? How broad 
the fields looked and how strange it was to see the sky dip- 
ing down and seeming to rest upon the hills and trees away 
off at the horizon line ! Well, that is the way this whole 
country looked to the little boys and girls who lived here so 
many years ago. 

We do not know very much about these little boys and 
girls, and their fathers and mothers ; for they knew nothing 
about writing, and so left no books to tell about themselves. 

We know they used to live in tents, which they called 
wigwams, and tliat they called the women, squaws, and 
the baby boys and girls, i)apooses ; and that they all were 
called Indians. 

These Indian people were very rude and wild. The 
fathers spent their time in hunting and fighting. The 
mothers staid about the tents, kept the fires going, tilled the 
ground, raised the corn, cooked the food, such as it was, 
and loved their children just as mothers always do the world 

The little l)oys and girls had no schools, no books, no toys 
to keep them busy ; so they spent their time playing about 
their tent or learning to fish and hunt and build canoes. 

Perhaps you think they had lovely times with nothing to 
do ; but I am afraid they sometimes had very hard times too. 

If I were to tell you the way the tribes of Indians used to 
pounce down on each other's homes, and slay the fathers, 


and burn the mothers, and steal the children, and the way 
the ehildreu used to huddle into their tonta during the cold, 
cold wintei's, 1 think you would not envy them at all. 


Baby (Pv^mei 


^OME Wonderful ^EA-|guNDg. 

Little indeed did the people of Europe know of this 
uoiintry across the water or of the strange copper-colored 
people living there. 

The ships in those days were small and frail, hardly more 
sea-worthy than a simple pleasure yacht to-day ; and for 
this reason very little had been learned of the ocean. 

" There is," sailors would sometimes say, " an island far out 
at sea. A beautiful sunny island with rich fruits and beauti- 
ful flowers and great purple mountains. Rich gems and 
gold and silver sparkle about its shores, and in the centre 
on a gentle slope of ground stands the palace of the sea- 

But though the sailors talked of it and the poets sang 
of it, no one had ever seen it. Sometimes in a clear day, 
standing upon the shores and looking away out to where 
the sky seems to dip down to meet the earth some imagin- 
ative person would think he saw it, and call to his compan- 
ions ; but before they could come, behold, it had always dis- 

There was living at this time a good man whom the people 
called Saint Brandon. He was always trying to help peojJe 
into what to him seemed right and good ; and when he heard 
of this island, he with another good priest sailed away 


towards it, hoping to find opportunity to help the people 
who might be living there. 

He never found the island, however — the Atlantis, as it 
was called, but he did find, so he said, another island, called 
afterwards the island of St. Brandon. But the wonderful 
pai*t of the story is that even this island could never again 
be found. Whether Saint Brandon was as fond as were 
other adventurers of his day of telling a big story, or 
whether he did honestly find an island which by and by 
sank below^ the level of the water, as sea-islands Ideally do 
sink, no one could ever tell. 

At another time in the history of Spain there was a ter- 
rible w^ar between the Moors and the Spaniards. Seven 
Spanish bishops, jmrsued by these Moors, took to their 
ships and sailed out upon the sea. " Better by far drown 
than be overtaken by our cruel foe," said they; and away 
they sailed out, out into the great sea, beyond all sight of 
land, into the very sunset, so they said. 

These bishops came at last upon an island. A beautiful 
sunny island, rich in fruit and flowers and most wonderful 

Here they built seven cities, each bishop placing himself 
at the head of his own city and governing such natives as 
lived in his part of the island. 

By and by when the cities were prosperous, the seven 
bishops returned to Spain and told of their wonderful dis- 


covery. Strange to say, however, no one was ever able 
again to find this island ; and no one has ever found it yi-t. 

One other island we must speak of — and that is the 
island of Bimini. This island not only was rich and beau- 
tiful, but there was upon it a fountain of sparkling wa.tpr 
whose waters could restore youth and strength to the weak- 
est and'oldest of men. 

Such an island as that was cei-tainly well worth searching 
for; and in 1512, long after Columbus had sailed to the 
new world and had so destroyed many of the foolish ideas the 
Spaniards had, even then an old man. Ponce de Leon, sailed 
away in search of this wonderful "Fountain of Youth." 

Indeed this was the childhood of the world, w!ion wise 
old men and wimien could listen to stories tliat to-day only 
a baliy could be made to l>elieve. It doesn't seem j)nssible 
that they believed so much ; but it is true enough tliat they 
did, for the books they made in those days tell us so. And 
who knows, after all, but that the things we believe to-djiy 
may, hundreds of years later, seem just as strange to the 
people living then. 


JhE pOY €0LUMBUg, 

But all these stories, foolish as they seem, proved in 
the end a good thing. They kept the people wide awake, 
and on the look out for any new discovery out upon the 
mysterious ocean. 

By and by there was born in the little village of Genoaj 
Italy, a baby boy who wus destined to do more than to guess 
and dream about the land beyond the sea. He was really 
^o go and find out and bring back real proofs of its existence. 

This baby bey, as every American school-child knows, was 
Christopher Columbus, the man whom now we are proud 

^onor as the discoverer of America. 

I.iving as he did in this little sea-port town, he was gener- 
ally, when Let at school, to be found standing about the 
wharves watching the great ships come in and listening to 
the marvellous «tories of the sailors. 

Genoa at tiJs time was a very rich town and sent ships to 
all parts of the known world. The little boy eagerly drink- 
ing in all the wonderful stories the sailors were so fond of 
telling, thus learned much of the far away countries — 
much that wa? true and much also that was purely imagin- 

**I shall be a saiior 1 I shall be a sailor 1 " he would say 
to himself as he listened ; and then like all other small lads« 


he longed to grow big and strong and old. "AVhen I'm a 
man, I shall be a saih)r! when Fm a man I shall go to all 
these wonderful countries and gather these beautiful things 
and bring home ships loaded with silver and gold." 

The parents of (yolumbus were poor people ; but they 
were wise and tried to give their boy a good education. 
He was taught to read and write ; and when by and by he 
was old enough to know what line of study he should most 
enjoy his father sent him away to school where he could 
study arithmetic and drawing and geography. 

To Columbus there was no study so fascinating as geogra- 
phy. As he had listened to the sailors' stories in his very 
early boyhood, so now he eagerly devoured every book and 
drank in every story he could find about the wonderful 
countries so far away. 

Still he would say to himself, "I nuist be a sailor I I must 
be a sailor I " 

One day his good father said to him, " My boy, I have 
watched you for a long time ; and since you are determined 
to be a sailor, since you like best those studies that have to 
do with naviiration, I am willinji^ to send vou to the Univer- 
sity of Pavia where, I am told, geography, astronomy, map- 
drawing, and navigation are wisely taught." 

('olumbus was a hapi)y ])oy, you may be sure. " Now 
indeed I may be a sailor," cried he — "a wise one! an 
explorer and a discoverer perhaps ! " and seizing a book, 



he ran down to the wharf to watch the ships and dream of 
the happy time when he should have learned all the mys- 
teries of navigation and should be able to guide for himself 
one of these great ships. 

There is a very beautiful statue in the Museum of Fine 
Arts in Boston, representing Columbus as a boy, book in 
hand, dreaming of the wonderful voyages he sometime 
sl^iould take. 


Columbus improved every hour of his term at the Univer- 
sity, learning so fast, and showing so much eager interest 
and real thoughtfulness, that the old professors were very 
proud of him, and predicted a great future for him. But 
even they had little idea of how great that future was to be. 

Columbus was only fourteen years old when he made his 
first voyage out upon the great l)lue sea with some traders 
bound for the East Indies. From that time on, liis life was 
like tliat of all sailors, I suppose, full of adventures, narrow 
escapes, and marvelous experiences. 

When he was thirty-five years old, he went to Lisbon, 
the capital city of Poitugal. He was a quiet, dignified. 


thoughtful man now — ^his hair already white, and here and 
there on his face lines of care and trouble. For Columbus' 
life had not been an easy one ; neither had he been content 
to drift along contented with whatever he had been taught 
and whatever he had seen and heard. 

The stories of the great flat earth borne upon the back of 
an elephant or upon the shoulders of a great giant, the 
stories of the sea-gods and wind-gods, — ail of which were 
believed in those early days, — h^d long since ceased to 
amuse or satisfy him, " They are not reasonable," he would 
say to himself. " They are like the stories one tells little 
children. There must be something different from all this/* 

And so, year after year, Columbus pondered and pon- 
dered upon these questions. He read every account of 
travels, every story of adventure, every theory of the earth's 
size and shape that he could find. But none satisfied him. 
'' It is easy enough to guess and to guess al)out these things," 
he would say; "but there must be some natural law, som^ 
real fact that, if discovered, would give us the true knowl- 

On account of the frailty of the ships, together with the 
superstitious fears the siilors hud of the unknown sea with 
its angry and revengeful gods, no one had ever sailed very 
far out upon the ocean, and so had little thought of what 
might be found away out beyond the horizon. 

'* There may be land there," Columbus would say " at any 


rate, I am convinced that this earth is round, and that 
by sailing straight out to the westward, we could cf)me to 
the East Indies, a much eas- 
ier and more speedy rout© 
than this we have always talt- 
en, down around the point of 
1 Africa and up into the Indian 
I Sea." 

" Hear him ! hear him I '■ the 
people would say. "He is 
crazy 1 he dares say the earth 
is round, when we and all our 
ancestors before us have knoicn 
that the earth is flat," "Ha, 
ha " laughed othei-s ; " let him 
sail westward as far as he 
pleases. When he has reached 
the edge of the great sea, and the sea-gods have cast him 
over, then he will leant how foolish he is, and Portugal 
will lje well rid of him I " 

John II., then King of Portugal, was convinced that these 
Dotiona of Columhus, as the people were pleased to call them, 
were not so absurd as they seemed. " The man knows what 
he is talking about, I believe," said he ; "I will get his plans 
from him, pi-etendto favor them, pretend to be willing to 
aid him — ^then — then — well,we'll see who will have the honor 


of the first expedition, Columbus the Genoese wool-comber^a 
son, or John 11., King of Portugal I " 

And so this mean king led Columbus on to tell his plans 
and his reasons for believing the earth to be round. The 
king was wise enough to see that there was sound common 
sense and reason in these plans ; then when he had learned 
all, and had stolen the maps and charts which Columbus 
had made, he secretly sent out a vessel and ordered the 
captain to follow closely the route Columbus had marked out. 

This was a mean trick ; and I am glad, and you will be, 
that it did not succeed. No sooner was the vessel out of 
sight of land than the ignorant captain and the superstitious 
sailors began to be frightened. 

*' We are '^urely sailing off the edge of the earth 1 " cried 
they. '^ What shall we do when the sea-gods learn that we 
have dared come out from our home into their sacred 
waters I " 

Then a great storm arose ! the waves rolled and tumbled 
nnd broke above them mountains high. The thunder rum- 
bled and the lightning flashed. Terror-stricken, the sailor's 
turned the vessel homeward. ** The gods are angry with us ! 
They are punishing us for our boldness 1 '* cried the most 
ignorant of the sailors. 

A more frightened and more miserable crew never sailed 
back into the Lisbon harbor than this crew sent out by 
King John II. 


Columbus, angry and disgusted with the meanness of the 
king, would have no further talk with him ; and, taking his 
little son Diego with him, he left the country and went to 

Columbus and Isabella, Queen or ^pain. 

Piiendless and without money, Columbus 
;iiid the little Diego tmvelled from place 
place, always seeking for some one who 
should understand and help him to an 
audience with the king or queen. If 
only somewhere a person of wealth 
, would fit out for him afleet, Columbus 
had not a doubt or fear but that he 
could return with news of such new 
lands or at least of a short route to India, as would 
a thousand times repay his country. 

Years and years rolled hy ; and Columbus had gained 
nothing but a world-wide name of being a fool or an insane 
man. Men sneered athim, boys hooted at him in the street. 
Surely it was a brave man who could endure all this for the 
iake of right. But it is always so ; as you grow older and 


read larger histories than these, you will find that never 
yet a great man or woman brought to the world any great 
truth not before known, that ignorance and superstition 
did not scoff at it and make the life of the brave discoverer 
one long life of wretchedness and persecution. 

One day Columbus and the little Diego stopped at the 
gate of a great gray convent, and asked for food. 

As the gate-man brought them bread, one of the monks 
passed l)y. Struck with the dignity and courteous, refined 
appearance of Columbus, he said to himself, "Whom have 
we here ! This is no ordinary beggar. I will speak with 

So going up to Columbus, he saluted him kindly, and 
asked him to stop and rest. Glad enough were both Colum- 
bus and Diego to accept this hospitality, and together the 
three entered the great halls of the convent. 

Now the monk was a man of great learning for those 
days. More than that he was a man who thought and who 
was always ready to accept any new theories, providing 
they seemed reasonable, and if any honest proofs of their 
truth could be presented with them. 

The intelligence and good faith of Columbus attracted the 
monk at once. "This man knows what he is about!" 
thought the monk ; " surely I must help him to gain 
audience with Queen Isabella. She, if anyone, will give 
him patient and intelligent hearing." 


At that time the king and queen were busy with a great 
war with the Moors ; so it was a long time before either 
could listen to him. After long weeks of delay, the king 
summoned him before them to present his request. There 
before the king and the queen and a large body of " wise 
men" as they called themselves, CoUimbus told his story. 

All listened attentively. I was like a wonderful dream or 
a grand fairy story, and people were very fond of wonder- 
stories of any kind in those days; but when the "wise 
men" were asked their opinion of the story as one at all 
likely to be true, they roared with laughter. 

"The earth round I " cried they. " It is absurd ; and if a 
fleet were sent out upon the ocean it would certainly sail 
over the edge and fall down — down into unknown space." 

"And supi)osing the earth were round," said others, " and 
supposing this crazy man could sail down and stand u[)on 
his head on the other side of the sphere, how, i)ray, could 
heever get back again. Has he learned to sail up-hill?" 

This was ind(^d, unanswerable, so they all thought. Of 
course he could not, and of course he w^as a fool to think of 
such a thing. And so of course Columbus was sent away 
in disgrace, while the "wise men" entertained their friends 
for days after with the absurd story the crazy Genoese had 
told them of the round earth. 

"I will go to France," said Columbus, to the good monk 
when, discouraged and weary at heart he returned to the 



convent with the story of his defeat. " I will go to France, 
and tell my story to the French King. There is no hope 
for me in Spain." 

"Wait, wait," said the monk. "I myself will go to the 
queen. I cannot hear that this honor should pass into the 
hands of the French. I will go to Isahella and beg her again 
to give you hearing." 

And so it was that once more Columbus waited and was 
led at last into the presence of the only one in all Spain who 
seemed to bo kind enougli at heart and to he far sighted 
enough to know that Columbus was neither foolish nor 

After long hesitation — for it was not an easy thing in 
those days to fit out a fleet, nor was it a politic thing for Isa- 
bella to move in opposition to ail the advice of her country- 
men, she sent this word to Columbus : " T will undertake this 
enterprise for my own kingdom of Castile, and I will pledge 
roy jewels, if need be, to raise the funds." 


With TshIjcIIu's aid and a littlo inuiioy which Columhus 
himself had, three ships were fitted out. These were not 
tall, stout ships such an you see lying sit our wharves with 
their broad sails, huge wooden sides, and wide decks. But 
they were small, frail crafts, not so large as those you se« 
sailing up and down rivers and lakes. 

Oil Friday, August 3, 1402, these three littlo vcssek set 
sail from Spain. 

They sailed about for weeks in unknown waters, keeping 
all the time to the west, until the sailors began to be 
frightened at the thought of their distauce from home. 


They threatened to throw Columbus overboard if he did not 
turn Imck. 

At last Columbus promised them that if they did not see 
land in three days he would return to Spain. You can 
imagine how anxious Columbus must have been during 
those three days. lie felt that land was near, although be 
could not prove it to the sailors. To turn baek now would 
have been a terrible disappointment. 

Fortunately for Columbus, signs of land began to appear. 
Birds came and rested on the masts ; a large branch from a 
tree floated by ; and even the dullest sailor could not fail to 
believe these signs. 

At last, one mcuning at daybreak, the cry of Land ! Land I 
was heard fnim the foremost ship. In a few hours they 
landed uptm an island. When Columbus stepped foot upon 
the dry bind, he sot up the Spanish Hag, and took possession 
of the island in the name of Spain. 



[EK the Indians, of whom you 
read in the iirst sttiry saw t\ie 
white sails of the vessels, they lushed down to the shores, 
yelling with astonishment, for they had never seen a ship 
before, and of course were terribly frightened. Some 
thought they were great birds with white wings, some 
thought the "Great Spirit" had come. 

When Columbus and his men had landed, the Indiana 
at first ran away but soon returned, saying, in their 
language, "Welcome, white men." They were very kind 
to Columbus and hia men, and helped them quite a little. 


Columbus always treated them kindly ; and it would have 

been well had all white men, in later years, done the same. 

When Columbus returned to Spain, and told of the 

wonderful copper-colored people he had seen, with straight 

black hair, and head-dresses of feathers, and faces streaked 
with paint, all Spain was filled with wonder. 

It was not long before shiploads of men were sent over 
to the new country ; and it was not many years before the 
island was settled by Spanish people. 



I wish I could tell jou that Spain was so proud of 
Columbus, and so grateful to him for his gift, that he was 
ever after treated with great honoi- ; that he never again 
wanted for anything which money and favor could buy ; and 
that he died peacefully at last, loved and honored by all. 

This certainly is what you might expect to hear of so 
good and brave a man. 

But there were jealous, envious men in Spain, who worked 
against Columbus ; and when, a few years later, he went 
again to the islands he had discovered, he was seized by one 
of these men, who was governing the colony which had 
been settled there, was put into chains, and carried on 
board his vessel and sent home. 

On reaching Spain, he found that his old friend, Isabella, 
had died. He sought justice from the king, but the king 
would do nothing for him. 

I am sorry to have to tell you that Columbus, now an old 
man, lived out the rest of his days in poverty, and died at 
last heart broken. Seven years after, the ungrateful king, 
ashamed of his behavior toward Columbus, put up an 
immense monument to his memory. Two hundred years, 
later, his bones were taken up and carried over to the island 
which he had discovered ; and there they lie now in a great 
cathedral in the city of Havana. 



But if Columbus discovered America, how did it happen 
that the country was named America ? It certainly seems as 
if Columl)ia would have been a better and more fittinor 
name for it, and it would have been but fair to Columbus 
after all he had borne to have had his name remembered 
in the naming of the country. 

But people were not very careful in those days about 
])eing'' fair" to anybody or anything; and so, when in 1497 
Americus Vespucius made a voyage to the new world and 
on his return talked much of what he had seen, and wrote 
several books al)out it, people began speaking of the new 
country as the country of Americus Vespucius ; by and by 
they called it Americus, and as Columbus was not the man 
to whine for justice, and as Americus Vespucius did not seem 
to object to the honor conferred upon him, it soon became 
customary throughout Europe to speak of the new world 
fts America. 

Americus Vespucius made another voyage a few years 
later, and this time he directed his course farther south, 
coming upon the continent of South America. 

They sailed along the coast for several thousand leagues, 
very carefully noting all changes in the soil, the climate, 
and even in the stars. 

'^In these Southern skies," reported he, "there is a 


constellation never seen by us, a group of four bright stars 
arranged in the shape of a cross. One cannot imagine how 
strange these southern heavens look with this great central 
figure of four bright stars." 

The winds grew colder and colder as they sailed along. 
The nights were fifteen hours long. Before them lay a 
great rocky ice-bound coast. "Let us return," begged the 
superstitious sailors ; '* we must be nearing the land of per- 
petual cold and darkness and we shall all ])e caught in the 
f^reat ice fields and be frozen to death." 

Americus turned his vessel homeward, glad and eager 
to tell of his discovery of the " Land of the Southern 
Cross," and the wonderful sights he had seen. All Europe 
rang with the praises of the wonderful explorer. His 
writings were passed from one to another, and everybody 
talked about them. Americus Vespucius, and not Columbus, 
was the hero of the hour. 


But what was England about all this time? No more 
than now was she the nation to sit quietly by and see 
another country carry ofl* a prize. 

England, too, was alive to the possibilities of the new 
world. She, too, sent out explorers and set up her claims 


of possession. Among those who set forth were Sebastian 
Cabot and his father John Cabot, Sir Francis Drake, and 
Sir Walter Raleigh. 

It was in 1497 that the Cabots set forth. Sebastian 
Cabot had lived in his boyhood days in the beautiful city 
of Venice, the city built so many years ago on little islands 
off the coast of Italy. The streets of this city are water, 
and the people ride up and down the streets of their city 
in boats called gondolas, just as in our cities we ride up 
and down the streets in carriages. 

It must have l)cen here that Sebastian grew to love the 
water ; for to the Venetian boy a gondola is what a l)icycle 
is to you. Sebastian used often to say ^'I think sometimes 
I am more at home on the water than I am on land ; and to 
go back to my boat is the rest to me that going on land is 
to other men." 

Now when reports of the discoveries of Columbus be- 
gan to attract the English people, the ( 'almts were inspired 
with a new zeal for exploration ; and fitting out five vessels 
of their own, away they vent, the king, Henry VII, hav- 
ing given them permission to sail to all parts of the seas 
and countries of the East and to take i)ossession of all lands 
they might visit. Generous king indeed, to give away 
lands that he had never seen and that he was by no means 
sure were on the face of the glol)e ! 

**We believe" said the Cabots, "there is a shorter 


JN'orthwest Passage by which we may sail to India, and we 
will go in search of it." 

O, that Northwest Passage I It has proved a sort of 
Will-o-the-Wisp to sailors ever since ; for every now and 
then, all along the years from 1497 till now, some adven« 
turous seaman has thought he was the man born to find the 
wonderful short route. But alas, a practical route has never 
been found, and the fate of the sailors has always been 
much the same. If they have lived to return at all, it has 
been always with the same sad story of wretched sufferii^g 
from starvation and cold. 

In 1498, Sebastian Cal)ot sailed out for the second 
time from England, this time full of courage. "We only 
learned our way about the strange waters on our first 
voyage," said he, "but this time we shall bring back 
reports of discovery." 

Sailing off towards Iceland, he passed that island and 
went on towards Labrador. Here he found the sea so full 
of codfish as "truly to hinder the sailing of the ships." 
Salmon, too, came swimming down the rivers in enormous 
numbers, and bears flocked at the watersides to catch and 
eat them. There were no fishery bills in those days, and 
the American bears and the English sailors fished side by 
side with not one thought of quarreling. 

Sailing on southward, Cabot discovered, to his great 
astonishment, that the coast was continuous for mile aftei 
mile away from Labrador to Florida ! 


^'This is not India," said he, "it is a continent, a New 
Found Land, lying somewhere between Europe and India." 
And so, while we remember that it was Columbus' thought 
that set all this zeal for search into motion and brought out 
all these wonderful discoveries and opened up to Europe 
the great New World, let us give to the Cabots the lesser 
honor — but the honor due them — of being the first to bring 
back the report that out beyond the waters lay a new 
continent — a New Found Land. 


Of all the gay, brave knights of Queen Elizabeth's 
court, none so gay and brave as Sir Francis Drake I 

Like Sebastian Cabot, Drake had, as a boy , been as much 
at home on the water as on land ; indeed, perhaps it would 
be the whole truth to say this time that the boy was entirely 
at home on the water, inasmuch as his father had, when 
Francis was quite a little lad, moved his whole family, 
twelve children in all — into an old hull of a ship which 


(ay wrecked off the coast of Kent. There they lived year 
after year — a jolly crew you may be sure — until one by 

one the boys grew up and pushed off each for himself to join 
some cruising party up and down the coast. 

In all these years since Columbus had discovered America, 
— for it was now 1577 — the Spaniards had been pushing on 


across the new continent and up and down the coast until 
there seemed a fair prospect of their gaining possession of 
the whole new worhl. 

More than this, the Spaniards, growing boh^er and bolder 
as the years rolled on, had for sometime been making them- 
selves generally disagreeable to the vessels of all other 
nations, even when out upon mid ocean. 

" Does Spain proi)()se to lay claim to the very waters of 
the ocean?" said Queen Elizabeth. 

''We will see," answered Sir Francis, gallantly. And he 
did see. Sailing away from England amid the cheers of his 
countrymen, loaded down with honors and buoyed up with 
promises of future glory on his return. Sir Francis Drake 
set forth gaily to teach the Spaniards a lesson — to explore 
new coasts and concjuer new countries should opportunity 
present, — but above all to teach the Spaniards a lesson. 

Sailing down the coast, driven blindly on by storm and 
wind, the Golden Hindj Drake's ship, reached one morning 
a point of high rocky land looking down upon where the 
two great oceans meet — the extreme southern point of 
South America — Cape Horn. 

'"Tis an ill wind that ])lows nobody any good," said Sir 
Francis (or at least he might have said it) as he looked 
with surprise upon the strange view before him. "Let us 
sail up this western coast." 

Landing at one place for water, they found a Spaniard 


asleep, thirteen bars of silver worth four thousand ducats 
lying by his side. '^ We took the silver/' said Sir Francis, 
dryly, when he told the story to the Queen, "and left the 

At another time, they met a Spaniard driving eight sheep 
to Peru. Across the back of each sheep were two bags of 
silver. Without so much as an " if you ))lease," Sir Francis' 
men took the silver — for the had come, you know, to teach 
the Spaniards a lesson. 

Again, entering the harbor at Callao, where seventeen 
ships loaded with treasure lay at anchor, the English men 
took possession of all the treasure and tripped away as 
gaily as mischievous school-boys. 

So they went on up the coast, taking the Spaniards 
everywhere by surprise. 

"Very likely," said this daring young captain, "since 
the two oceans meet at the southern extremity of this great 
new land, they will also meet at the northern extremity. 
We will sail on northward around that point into the 
Atlantic to our English coast." 

"A very pretty little trip," thought all the crew ; e>pec- 
ially as for the best of reasons anything would })robably be 
pleasanter than sailing back again through Spanish waters 
and past Spanish ports. 

On they went up the coast, enjoying everything and 
looking hopefully for the northern point. But it grew so 


very cold and the days grew so short, and the ice was so 
threatening, they were forced to turn back and take their 
chances among the Spaniards, who by this time were pretty 
sure to have recovered from their surprise and to be on the 
lookout for the returning vessel. 

"But we can sail far out into these Western waters," 
said Drake, " and the earth being round, we can sail througl 
the Indian Sea, round Cape of Good Hope up the European 

And this he did, reaching England September 2, 1580 — 
the first En<2:lishman to sail around the world ! 

How the church bells rang out as the ship entered the 
harbor 1 how the guns thundered and how the people 
cheered ! 

And Queen Elizabeth herself, delighted indeed at his suc- 
cess, for nothing ever succeeded with Queen Elizabeth like 
success, conferred the honor of knighthood upon him, gave 
him the title of Sir Francis, and presented him with a coat- 
of-arms — a ship on a globe. 

The Golden Ilind she ordered to be lodged in the Dept- 
ford dock as a monument to the courage and daring of the 
brave sailor. For years it stood there : and when its tim- 
bers began to decay, a chair was made from it and j)resented 
to the University of Oxford. And in the college building 
it still stands, as grand and important as ever, ready to tell 
always its wonderful history. 



Did you ever hear of the young Englishman who. 
when one day Queen Elizabeth, taking lier daily walk, 
came to a muddy place in the road, threw down his ricbu 


plush coat, and with & profound bow begged her Queenship 
to do him the honor to step upon it? 

Well, that young Englishman was the Sir Walter 
Ealeigli of whom we hear among the stories of earliest dis- 

Sir Walter had made several voyages with his oldet 
brother Sir irunn)liroy Gilbei-t, who had tried again and 
again to find the Xorthwcst Passage of which the Cabots so 
long Ix^fore had talked and written. 

And now a time had come when England was very 
anxious to g(»t a colony founded in America before the 
Spanish should take j)ossessi()n of the whole countiy. 

Several attempts were made, but none of them were suc- 
cessful. One colony, called in history '' The Lost Colony," 
was made up of a hundred and fifty families. They settled 
upon the beautiful island of Eoanoke in All)cmarle Sound. 

When their rough houses were built and the people had 
planted their fields and seemed comf()i'tal)le and prosperous, 
their governor, John Whyte, returned to England to 
report their success and to bring back provisions for the 

The governor did not like to leave the colony ; for there 
svere hostile Indians round J^bout, his people depended upon 
him for guidance, and, then too, there was a little baby 
girl — little Virginia Dare — the first English baby born on 
American soil — who had a wonderful hold on the heart 


strings of the rough old governor, and made him wish he 
might stay there on the beautiful island and protect her 
from all danger. 

But the colonists needed provisions, and so the brave 
governor sailed away. 

On reaching England, he found the country in such com- 
motion and the queen so ])usy with the war going on between 
Spain and England that it was three long years before he 
couhl get together the provisions and the help he needed to 
carry back to the little colony. 

When at last he set sail it seemed to him the ocean must 
have grown thousands and thousands of miles wider. The 
voyage was so long and he was so anxious about the little 
colony and so (^agor to see the little baby colonist. 

At last, the vessel neared the island. Eagerly Governor 
Whyte looked uj) and down the shores for some sign of 
welcome. But only the stillness and the gloom of the 
dense forest greeted him. Not a sign of life. The huta 
were deseiled, and not a sound was to be heard save the 
cry of the birds and the moaning of the trees. 

On a tree were cut a few letters. What did that 
mean? Was it the name of some place to which the colon- 
ists had moved? No one knew. No one ever knew; and 
not one trace of this lost colony, not one trace of the 
little English baby, Virginia Dare, has been found to thia 



But Sir Walter Raleigh not only sent out colonists, bat 
went himself. Much was being reported of the enormous 
amounts of gold to be found in Guiana. *' Why," said one 
adventurer, '' it lies in lumps about the streets and in the 
forests it lies like fallen trees across one's path." 

''England must have some of that gold," said Raleigh. 
''It will never do to let Spain capture it all." And so ho 
set forth for the wonderful gold country. Of course, he 
found no such quantities of gold, but he explored the 
livers and brought home most valuable reports of the 
new world. Later, in a great battle with the Spanish ves- 
sels, Raleigh so contrived to set his own vessel across a 
narrow channel that the whole Spanish fleet was crippled 
and had no other choice than to blow up their own vessels 
rather than see them captured by Raleigh. Raleigh's vic- 
tory was a death-blow to the Spanish power on sea. Never 
again did she dare defy the powers of other countries as she 
had done and proudly proclaim herself "mistress of the 
seas." The power of Spain was from that day broken. 

The queen was proud indeed of her brave knight, and all 
England rang with praises of their bold deliverer. 

But by and by the queen died. King James of Scotland 
became King of England. Now the skies grew black 


indeed, for Sir Walter. King James hated him, was jeal- 
ous of him, and felt that he was a man to be feared. Ac- 
cordingly he shut him up in prison ; and later he was con- 
demned to death. It is a sad, cruel story and we will not 
repeat it here. Only you may ])e sure, good l^rave man as 
he was, that he died nobly ; and that as the years rolled on 
the world grew more and more to appreciate what a grand 
man he had been and to honor him in history and in art. 


Lately there has been raised in Boston a monument in 
memory of Lief, the l)rave Northman or Xorscman, who, it 
is believed, sailed from his home in (Greenland to the coasts 
of America. 

There isn't so very nuich to l)e told a])()ut this explorer, 
for he lived so very long ago and there is so little that is 
truly relia])le in history as far back as the time of these 

The vessel in which this Norseman came was odd-looking 
enouii:h. Sometimes it moved alonij l)vits sails, sometimes 
each man would take an oar and so help it to move along 
over the water. 


The first land these hardy Norsemen found was flat and 
stony near the sea, but inland were hi<^h mountains plainly 
to be seen from the shore. This was Labrador. Then on 
the Norsemen went farther south, [)leascd with the warmth 
of the sun and the green trees, the song birds and the rich 
fruits. One day they found such delicious wild grapes and 
in such abundance that Lief gave to the country the name 
of Vineland. 

So delightful was the climate and so rich the fruits that 
the little band built huts and planned to spend the winter 
in the beautiful Vineland. It was all very strange to them, 
the beauty of the autumn and above all the strange way in 
which the days grew shorter and shorter and the nights 
lon<rer and lono:er. 

Spring came, and Lief hastened back to Greenland to 
tell of the wonderful new land. Other Norsemen came and 
later still a Norwegian nobleman with his beautiful young 
wife Gudfrida. A colony was formed and the peoi)le lived 
very happily for three years or more. 

Then for some reason the colony died out, and little is 
known of them except what has been found in old chronicles 
in Iceland. 

In Newport is a strange old tower which is believed to 
have been built by these Norsemen. Certainly it is old 
enough and strange enough ; but as to the exact truth of 
the Norsemen in America, I suppose we shall never know. 



During all these years tlie Spaniards had been sending 
over peoi)le, until now there were quite flourishing Spanish 
towns on those islands round al)out where Columbus had 
first landed. The Spanish had begun to be very cruel to the 
poor Indians, and the Indians were beginning so see that it 
was an unlucky day for them when the great white ships of 
C'olum])us came to their shores. 

About twenty years after the landing of Columbus, Balboa 
came over with a small fleet to look for gold. Balboa 
founded a colony, and was made its governor. He was 
very angry that the Sj)aniards had treated the Indians so 
unjustly ; and demanded at once that no man from his colony 
should treat them as the other colonies had done. 

The poor Indians, who had suffered so nuich from the 
Spaniards, were very glad to find these new comers so kind 
to them. AVhen they found that the great desire of Balboa 
was for gold, the Indian chief sent him a large box full of 
the precious metal as a peace oflfering. 

AVhen Balboa opened the box, the men all began quarrel- 
ling over it, snarling and fighting each other like fierce dogs. 
Even the Indian chief was dis<rusted with them and said, 
"Shame upon you, (,'hristians I there is a land not far away 
where there is gold enough for all." 

Balboa and his men cared very little for the Indians 


disgust for them, but began at once to beg him to lead them 
to this land of gold. 

One bright morning very soon after, they started towards 
a ridge of mountain land beyond which, so the Indian said, 
lay a great ocean and also the land of gold. Balboa, 
anxious to see this great ocean first, left his men on the 
side of the ridge, and climbed to its top alone. There lay 
spread out before him, rolling and sparkling so peacefully, 
the great ocean never before seen l)y white men. Calling 
his men, he descended the ridge, and stepi)ing into the 
water he took possession of the ocean in the name of Spain. 


Since I have told you about Balboa and the new ocean, I 
must tell you al)out the first voj'age around the world. A 
man named Magellan started out from Spain with quite a 
large fleet, hoping to find a way through this new continent 
by which he might sail around the world. He sailed directly 
across the Atlantic to America, looking all around up and 
down the coast for an opening to the other ocean. 

Finding that there was none, he sailed down to the very 
southern point of South America, and after sailing around 


fchat point he came out into the free ocean. When he saw it 
first, it looked as it did when Balboa first saw it — smiling 
and peaceful. On account of its calm, sunny appearance, 
he named it at once the "Pacific," which means peaceful. 

They found some very strange people as they sailed along 
the coast of South America, who, so Magellan said, were 
ten and twelve feet tall. These people were unusualy tall 
but it is hardly likely they were quite as tall as Magellan 
and his men said. Sailors, in those days, liked to tell very 
big stories, I think, just as they do now. 

These natives of South America were as surprised to see 
the white men as the white men were to see them. The 
natives could not understand how such little men could make 
such big ships move, and they thought the boats must be 
the babies of the ships. 

They pulled from the ground, and gave to the white men 
to eat, something which Magellan and his men said looked 
like turnips and tasted like chestnuts. The sailors ate them 
eagerly without cooking, and carried some of them home to 
Spain as great curiosities. Do you guess what they were ? 
Nothing but common potatoes, which are eaten now every 
where, but which then were known only to the Indians. 


T AM going to ask you now to take a long leap with me, 
out of the period of discoveries over into the period of 
the colonies. You must not imagine that these few men I 
have told you about so far did all the discovering in the new 

There were many more, O so many, that I think you 
might read al)out them every day for a whole year, and then 
not read half. Hundreds and hundreds of men had been 
sent over by England, France, Spain, and many other 
European countries. These men had wandered about the 
country, stealing sometimes from Indians, sometimes 
fighting and killing them, and often getting killed them- 

Sometimes a band of these men would come over, intend- 
ing to build towns and live here together, as they had lived 
in their old homes in Europe ; but something would always 
happen to prevent their success. Either they would grow 
homesick, or they would grow lazy, or, worse still, the 
Indians who had now grown to hate the white men, would 



fall upon them and scalp them and slay them with theit 

The Indians, you remember, were very kind to the white 
men at first ; but after the white men began to be cruel and 
hard to them, they, too, grew hard and cruel, and there 
seemed nothing too terrible for the Indians to do in revenge. 

These Indians had very strange ways of carrying on their 
battles. ihey never came out and met the enemy face to 
face in battle army ; but would skulk around behind trees, 
in swamps, or in the high grass. 

When the white men used muskets and gunpowder, the 
Indians were terribly frightened ; but it was not very long 
before they learned themselves to use them. One day an 
old Indian chief begged some gunpowder from a white man, 
and ran away to his wigwam with it. The white man 
watched to see what he would do with it. When he reached 
his wigwam, he called some of his friends about him, and, 
after a long council together, they began to plant the 
powder. They thought it would grow like corn and beans. 

When an Indian killed a white man in battle, he always 
tried to tear off the skin from the top of the white man's 
head. The more scalps he could get the braver he thought 
he was. After a battle he would show the scalps w:th great 

They were a very wandering people, never staying in 
one place very long at a time. 



When they made up their minds to move, the women 
would take down the tents, strap their babies on to their 
backs, and trudge on the best they could, carrying the poles 
and household w.iies, the mats and the furs on their 
shoulders. The men would march on ahead with nothing 
but their bows and arrows. 

Sometimes the poor women would sink under their heavy 
loads. The men would beat them and kick them, until 
the poor things would rise and stioiggle on. When tho 
Indians reached a place which looked pleasant for a camjnng 
ground, the men would throw themselves down upon the 
ground in a sunny place, and lie there smoking and napping 
while the women set up the tents and got tho camps in order. 

The men treated the women like slaves. They made them 
do all the work, such as planting the corn, building the 
tents, carrying the baggage ; while they did nothing but 
hunt and fish and smoke and tight. 



In 1()07, settloinont hy the English began in real earnest. 
Several good men, having had permission from the English 
government to come to America and found a colony, set 
sail from London. They reached the month of a river in 
Virginia, which they named the James, in lionor of their 
English king. The town they began to build they named 

One of the principal men of this company was John 
Smith, lie was a very wise, good man, and seemed always 
to do the right thing at just the right time. 

The story of his life is as interesting as a novel. If there 
were time T would tell you some of his strange adventures 
at sea and in the l)attlefield. 

One adventure of his in Jamestown colony will show you 
what a l)rave man he was, and how a little Indian girl saved 
his life. John Smith had started up the river on an explor- 
ing expedition. Some Indians had been watching, and 
when Smith left his boat, they seized it, scalped the men he 
had left with it, and then ran to overtake Smith himself. 

When he saw them coming he turned and fouirht them so 
furiously that, although there were many of them they had 



much trouble to secure him. They led him to their camp. 
Here he showed them his compass, and told them how the 
needle always turned to the north. This amused the 
Indians so much that they allowed him to live several days 
in peace. They decided at last that he was too wise, and 
therefore dangerous to have about : and that the sooner he 
was killed the safer it would be for them. So, having held 
a long council, and having performed some wonderful war 
dances over him, he was led forth to be killed. 

Poor Smith could see no way of escape, and, as he used 
to tell afterwards, he was more frightened than he had Ijcea 


when he was thrown overboard, or when he fought the 

He was brought out, bound hand and foot, and the Indian 
had already raised his war-elub to dash out his brains, when, 
just then, up rushed little Pocahontas, a bright Indian girl 
threw her arms around John Smith's neck, and begged the 
chief to spare his life. Strange to say, the cruel old chief 
seemed moved by the child's pleading, and the prisoner was 
released, and even allowed to return to Jamestown. 

For some time John Smith remained in the little white 
settlement, guiding the aflairs of the colony. As long as he 
was there all went well, for Smith was a very wise man, 
and was not afraid to work hard with the other men to help 
make the settlement a pleasant home. At last he was 
obliged to return to England. Yon would suppose that 
after he was gone the men would have been wise enouo-h to 
keep on tilling the ground and building their houaes. 
You shall see in the next story what they did. 

When John Smith returned to Jamestown, he found the 
men quarreling among themselves. They had used up the 
provisions and were nearly starving. Had Smith not 
returned just when he did, I fear they would have given up 
the colony and gone back to England. But Smith worked 
hard to save the colony ; and, after a long time, got the men 
to stop their foolish quarreling, and go to work to build up 
the colony and protect it from the Indians. 


The Indians, however, were never quite friendly; and 
after years and years of continual quarreling with them the 
colonists were determined to make a settlement with them 
in some way. One of them thought it would bo a good plan 
to steal Pocahontas, and then send word to the Indians that 

they would do her no harm so long as they did not trouble 
the colony. Pocahontas was now a young woman nearly 
nineteen years old, and she was said to be very beautiful. 
At any rate she won the heart of a young Englishman in 
the colony named John Rolfe. 


Aft<T Pocalioiitiis and John Rolfe were married, they 
went to Ktifrljind, Kolfc's old home. Pocahontas was re- 
<;»?ivn<l there with much honor, and came to be greatly loved 
Uy nil who knew her. 

It was Kolfc's phin to spend a few months in England, 
nnil then relitrn to the colony in America, and make for 
llicmselvfw a home in which they hoped to live the rest" of 
their lives together. But I'ot^ahonlas began to fail in health. 
I'robulily th<' <hangc from her free forest life to the close 
house ht'i'. of !in Kiifrlisli city was more than she could bear. 
Day by d;iy I'licahontiis grow weaker, and at last she died. 

Slie h'fl. ii lillh^ Imliy boy, who was as beautiful, it is said, 
as Ills inotlicr had Itecn. John Kolfc took the little one to 
AiiKirica, and tlierc lie grow up in the colony. Some of the 
good fumilii'H of Virginia to-day are proud to say that they 
are d<!»«;cndants from this little son of Pocahontas. 


THE next colony was settled in Ma ssacliu setts. Ono 
stormy diiy in December, 1(>20, there sailed into Capo 
Cod harbor a queer little vessel named the "Mayflower." 
On board this little craft were a hundred bravo men and 
women, who had come from England in order to escape 
"religious perseuution." These are rather large words for 
young folks ; but I think it better for you to learn them just 
here, because they seem, somehow, to belong to these 
particular people. Why, you will understand later. 


Now, it seems rather cruel to leave these wanderers out 
in th(^ cohl slorin ; but we nnist for a few moments, while 
we hurry over to Kn^jhind to learn what had happened there, 
to send Wwhv, nicui and women across the ocean at this 
stormy time of ilu) year. 


Very likely you have heard of Queen Elizabeth, or Good 
(^ucM'n Wvss, as her people used to call her. 

Lon^ befon*. Klizabeth herself was ruler over England, 
h<»r father, Kin<j: Henry the Eighth, had had a great quaiTel 
with th(^ Pope at Honu^ The P()})e, being the head of the 
(^ath()li(! Church, sent c(»rtain orders to King Henry. 

All Kngland at that time was Catholic, and had always 
ob(»-yed the Po})(^ in every point. 

Hut King Henry made u}) his mind that he would obey 
no onc^ ; and that he would be the head of the Church 
hinis(»lf. So he announced to his subjects that no longer 
were they to pay any attention to the Pope's orders, but 
that they were to obey him instead. 

This seenied a fearful thing to some of the people. They 
believed God would send some terrible punishment to 
themf Still, there were very many people in England who 



were glad of the change, and who, therefore, took the 
king's side in the trouble that followed. 

King Henry died before the people had all grown used 
to the change, and left the throne to his son Edward, who 
believed as his father had. 

Edward died very soon after he came into power, and 
his sister, Mary, took the throne. Now, Mary was an 
earnest Catholic, and as you would suppose, began at onci 
bringing back the priests, and doing everything in het 
power to restore the old religion. 

It would take many pages to record the names of 
the men and women who suffered terrible deaths for 
rebelling against her orders. But we must rcmem])er that 
Mary believed she was doing right, and that in doing these 
terrible deeds she was advancing the glory of hor Clmrch. 

Mary's reign came to an end at last, and Queen Elizabeth 
took the throne. But Elizabeth was as strong a Protestant 
as Mary had been a Catholic ; and again, because of their 
religious opinions people were persecuted, as in the times 
of King Henry and Queen Mary. 



But you will J)egin to wonder w^hat all this has to do 
with the nion and women we left in Cape Cod harbor. As 
you will so(s it has everything to do with it. 

During all this trouble in England, there had been 
rising a class of people who believed neither in the Catholic 
C/hurch nor in the English Church. 

Th(^se people dressed very strangely, and acted even more 
strangely. Xow, it was the fashion in those days for gentle- 
men to wear their hair long, and to dress in very elegant 
clothes; but these people wOio had arisen, and who hated 
both the churches, dressed in the very plainest of clothes, 
wore their hair so short that they w^ere nick-named,'* Round 
Heads," would not allow music in their churches, would 
not have the old church service, and, in short, would have 
nothing but the very barest and plainest of everything. 

These people w^ere called Puritans, and Round Heads, 
and many other names, l)y the rest of the English people, 
who looked upon them as fools and lunatics. 

You may be sure the Puritans or Round Heads, did not 
have a very enjoyal)le time in England. 

At last, a little band of them, unable to bear their perse- 
cution, went over into Holland. There they lived happily 
enough, only that they longed for a home of their own, 


where they could teach their own religion, and make it the 
religion of the country. 

For this reason they went back to England, obtained 
permission to found a colony in the new world, and with 
their hearts full of hope and courage, started out — two 
vessels full — for the unknown land. One of these vessels 
was obliged to put back into port because it was found to 
be unseaworthy. Thus it was that the Mayflower, one of 
the two, came into Cape Cod harbor alone. 

You will often here the Puritans, who came first U. 
America, spoken of as Pilgrims, or the Pilgrim Fathers. 
This was a name they gave themselves because of their 
pilgrimages to Holland and to America in search of a home. 
Try to remember this — these plain, honest. God-fearing 
people were all called Puritans in England, while the few 
who wandered about and finally settled in Plymouth were 
given the extra name of Pilgrims. 


Let us go back to Cape Cod harbor now, and see what 
these Pilgrims have been doing all this time. It was one of 
those snowy, windy days which we, who live near 
the Atlantic coast, expect to have now and then 
in the winter time. Not a pleasant sort of a day to 
spend on the oceap even in the snuggest and warmest of 



vcwsols. Milch less plousiint it iiiiiist liave been to these 
wjiiHlorcrM in tli<'ir nulcly built vpssoI, drifting ul>out as tiiey 
were at tlio iiicivy of Hip wind and tide. 

The I'ilfiriins hiid inlendcd to liind much farther south, 
where it whh plciisjintcr iuid wiirnicr; but the stonn had 
Ix-en so severe thc^- hist all (control over the Mayflower, and 
were obli^^cd to make port wliorever they could. 

I am alVtiid they wvw not (jveii)leascd when their vessel 
cfinie into Capi- Cod harbor; f'dv there 
they found only a rocky, desolali 
sh(»rc iiw!iilin<r (lii-ni ; iin<l, as it was in 
the dea<l of winter, y()U can ima^^ini' 
bow cold and ban; it 'all looked. Tlir 
trees were leafless, tin- jrronnd was fro- 
zen, and tin: waters almnt the shores 
were covered wllli sheets of ice. 

But they were a brave, sturdy 
iKiud. Altlioujrli tli"y w"oukihave , 
iK'eu glad to ha wcbn.nied by 
the picasant warmth of the 
southern lands, as tlicy left 
llieir weatlutr-lieati'ii vessel, 
still they hrav<'iy aocepteil 
what was iKrforc them, jier- 
fectly sure that they had ^ 
been guided to this shore by 
Divine iK)wer. 



JhE I-ANDINQ of the pIJLQRIM ]^'aTH£RP. 

The breaking waves dashed high 

On a stern and rockl)ound coast, 
And tlie woods, against a stormy sky, 

Their giant branches tossed ; 

Ami the heavy night hung dark 

Tlie hills and waters o'er, — 
When a band of exiles moored their hark 

On the wild New England shore. 

Not as the conqueror comes, 

They, the true-hearted, came ; 
Not with the roll of stirring drums. 

And the trumpet that sings of fame ; 

Not as the flying come, 

In silence and in fear ; — 
They shook the depths of the desert's gloom 

With their hymns of lofty cheer. 

Amidst the storm they sang. 

Till the stars heard, and the sea ; 
And the sounding aisles of the dim woods rang 

To the anthem of the free. 



The ocoan-eagle soared 

From Iiis nest by tlie white wave's foam, 
An<l tli(^ r()ckin<^ pines of the forest roared; 

This was their welcome home. 

There were men with lioary liair 
Ami<lst tiiat i>il*rrim band; 

Wiiv ha<l they coiiie to wither tlieve, 
Away from their ehildliood's hind? 

There was woman's fearless eve, 

Lit by her (U'ep h)ve's truth; 
There was mjinhood's })r()w serenely high, 

And the fiery heart of youth. 

What soujrht they thus afar? — 

Hrijjjiit jewels of the mine? 
The wealth of seas? the spoils of war? 

'i'liey s()U<»ht a faith's pure shriue. 

Ay, call it holy ground, 

Th(i laud where tirst they trod ! 
They have left unstained what there they found, — 

Freedom to worship God ! 

— Mrs. Hemans. 


As soon !is all had lumled, they jrathci-od tdgcthor .ibout 
that large nick at the watci^'M c.(\ge, known now as 
Plyiiioutli Ilock, anil kneeling down thanked (Jixl tor tlicir 
safe deliverance from the perils of the aea. 

Then they went stnrdily to woik. These men were not 
idle, lazy good-for-nothings, an those colonists in Virginia 
had l>een. Tliey did not need a Jolm Smith to urge thcni 
to be industrious. They were all terrilily in earnest. They 
had left their native land, and with their brave wives, had 
come over to tliis wilderness to build homes for themselves. 

Can't you fancy their axes ringing in tlie still winter days, 
as they felled the trees for luudier with which to build their 
rude houses? 

Can't you fancy the biiive, tender-hearted wives and 
mothers working on bravely in the bitter cold of their odd, 


uncomfortable houses, washing, ironing, baking, brewing, 
pounding the corn, spinning the cloth, and making the homes 
comfortable, and even cheerful, in the thousand ways which 
only mothers and wives can understand? 

And the little l)oys and girls too. There weren't very 
many of them to be sure ; but can't you fancy how bravely 
the children of such nol)le men and women would behave, 
how tlu^y would try to bear the cold and hunger without a 
tear, and would try in all their little ways to do their part 
towaids hel})ing their papas and mammas to build up their 

And there were two little babies, too. Little, wee, wee, 
baby boys, who were born during the voyage from England 
to America. 1 am afraid these little l)abies didn't have all 
the beautiful little dresses and sacques and fine laces, the 
lovely little toilet basket, with its dainty combs and brushes 
and ])ufrs and powders that the babies we see have. I 
shouldn't wonder if the little strangers were wrapped in 
very ordinary shawls and blankets, and that the mothers 
were very thankful they could keep them from the cold. 
Nevertheless, I sus})eet these little babies had a very warm 
welcome from all these sturdy, hard-working men and 
women. For there is onc^ beautiful thing about babies, — 
they themselves are always so swe(»t and lovable, that it is 
a very hard-hearted man or woman whose heart is not 
drawn just a little towards the little, innocent,, helpless 


things. I imagine the little fellows were the pets of the 
whole colony. Cjin't you see the women coming every 
(lay to look in upon the new babies, and the men, each 
glad to stop and amuse the little ones for a minute as 
they went to and fro ; and the children all happy to be 
allowed to take care of them. These babies, I imagine, 
put a great deal of warm feeling into these busy colonists. 

They gave the babies very funny names you will think. 
They called one Peregrine, which means wandering l)ecause 
he was born while these people were wandering about, 
searching for a new home ; and the other Oceanus because 
he was born upon the ocean. 

Should you ever visit the town of Plymouth, you will find 
there, in Pilgrim Hall, the very cradle in which little Pere 
grine's mother used to rock him so many, many years ago- 



The colonists worked hard during the whole winter and 
spring and summer, so that by the time the next winter 
came they had quite comfortable homes. 



The Indians had heen very kind to them, probably 
because they had heen kind and honest in their dealingH 
with the Indians. 

While these people at Plymouth were settling their 
homes, there came other bands of English men and women 
to the shores of Massachusetts. Some siiiled into Salem 
harbor, settling there, others went to Boston, Roxbury, 
Dorchester, Charlestown, and several other places. 

You see these later bands of colonists were larger. 
Besides this, they were (juite wealthy people. They were 
Puritans like those who had come to Plymouth ; but they 
had not been persecuted very severely, and did not come, 
therefore, because they were driven from England. They 
had come hoping to found new homes for themselves, where 
they could enjoy greater freedom in their manner of 
worship, to be sure ; still, I want you to keep distinctly in 
your mind the differences between these colonies. 

D pLTtfonra. 



\j}R iire sorry to s;iy tluit 

JU^ tho !-ettIprs in Yirjriniu 

"— very soon begsiii to keep 

sliives. These siiivps did all 

the work for their niiistcrs, 

ami received no pay for it 

except their food and clothes. 

Very likely the masters were kind eiioufi:h to them, and 

very likely they worked no harder than men and women do 

everywhere. But there is this great difference between 

slaves and other people who work ; 

The man or woman who goes out to work as we t^ce tlteni 
doing to-day, goes at a certain time, works until a certain 
hour, and receives pay for it. That man or woman has 
perfect liberty to do whatever he or she wishes with the pay 
received, pei-fect liberty to go to another place to work, 
perfect liberty to do anything and everything without asking 


permission of the employer. Jkit how is it with a slave ? 
His employer owns him just as he owns his horses and oxen. 

The slave takes the master's horses in the morning and 
goes out to work with them wherever the master bids. No 
matter how much or how little the slave and the horses have 
earned for the master, — the master takes it all. He would 
no more think of giving the slave a part of it than he would 
of giving a part to his horse. The horse receives his bed 
and supi)er for his day's work, and the slave receives the 
same. So you see a slave has no hope (no matter how hard 
or how well he may work) of receiving anything for it 
which he can call his own. 

Is it any wonder then, as the years roll on and on, 
bringing him no reward for his labor, that he grows to be 
stupid and heavy, without ambition or hope, and becomes, 
as the slave-holders used to say of him, as dumb as the 
cattle he works with? 

Virginia was a great tobac^co growing country ; and as 
there was very little real money to be had, the colonists 
used tobacco instead. This, of course, was just as good ; 
for, if a farmer wanted to buy an article worth fifty cents, 
he gave fifty cents worth of tobacco for it. The dealer who 
received the tobacco packed it away with other tobacco until 
he had a large amount of it. Then he would send it to 
England, and receive for it either money or goods for his 
store, which he would sell again for more tobacco. 


At one time in the early history of this colony, there 

came over from England about a hundred young women, 

who were sold to the colonists for a hundred pounds of 

tobacco each. Each colonist then went to the priest with 

the woman he had bought with his tobacco, had the marriage 

ceremony performed, and then led her to his home. This 

would seem a very strange thing now-a-days ; Init we must 

remember that people in those days had very strange ideas, 

not only about the shape of the earth, but about women as 


There were some very strange laws in these early colonial 

If a woman was a scold she was ducked in running water 
three times ; if she sland(^red any one, her husband was 
obliged to pny five hupdred pounds of tobacco to the 
governor of the colony; a husband had a perfect right in 
those days to whip his wife whenever he seemed to think she 
needed it. 

They had some temperance laws which it would be well, 
perhaps, for us to bring into fashion in our own day. No 
man was allowed to keep a " tavern " who did not possess 
an excellent character. The names of all drunkards were 
posted up in the taverns, and no one was allowed to sell 
liquor to them. No one under twenty years of age was 
allowed, in Connecticut, to use tobacco, and no one, no 
matter what his age, was allowed to use it more than once a 


Dress, too, was limited by law. No one owning land not 
valued at, at least, two hundred dollars could wear gold or 
silver lace; and only the ''gentility" were allowed to use 
Mr. or Mrs. before their names. 

There were very severe laws against those who would not 
attend church. If a man was al)sent one Sunday, ho would 
not be given his aUowance of provision for a week ; if he was 
absent a se<^ond time, he was whipped ; a third time, he was 
likely even to be hanged. 

In Virginia especially, both men and women were whipped 
in sight of the whole colony. They were sometimes made 
to stand in the church with white sheets over their heads 
during the whole service ; or they would be made to stand 
on the church stei)s, with the name of their crime pinned 
upon their breasts. 

The New England people were also very strict regarding 
the Sab])ath. As soon as the sun went down on Saturday 
evening, then their Sabbath began. From that time until 
sunset on Sunday night, no noise, no play, no singing, not 
even laughing among the children was permitted. T am 
afraid the little ones had rather a dull time on the Sabbath, 
for you remember there were no beautiful books and 
magazines in those days, and if there had ])een, they would 
not have be(ai allowed to read anything but the little New 
England Primer, which contained quaint pictures, a few 
terrible verses, and the Catechism. 


Ab puDishment, wbea men disobeyed the laws or the 

~ lulc'i < f tbo miiiioter> 

they had an odd way 
of tiikmg them out 
into I public plui.e lud 
imlting 'hem lu thu 
httckaoi inthc piUoiy, 
whtic thc^ wtro kept 
ri itilpundunri the sub- 
ji t uf the 1 iii^hti-i and 


|oke8 of every passer 
by. Such punitihmeuts 
wouid eeem unehriatian 
now, but they were 
very commoD in those 



Jhe }^iRgT Chriptma? Jree in JNew JJnqland. 

lu the Olcott's tiny cottage 

Sits the good wife, at her wheel ; 
Glancing often toward the firelight, 

Where tlie dancing flames reveal 
Roger's wasted form and features : 

Her dear son — her youngest born. 
For tlie far off shores of England 

Captain Olcott sailed, one morn ; 
Thrice had Summer coaxed the blossoms 

From each nigged hill and plain. 
Thrice had Winter piled his snowdrifts, 

But the ship came not again. 

Day by day the mother battled 

Bravely for her children four ; 
But grim want was bearing this one 

Over yonder, where no more 
Shall be hungering nor thirsting. 
" I am weary sitting here ; 
Talk to me of England, mother; " 

So she tells him of the cheer 
In her dear old home at Christmas ; 

Of the pretty Christmas boughs 
Hung with gifts, and lit with tapers ; 

Till his face with pleasure glows. 


" Oh Mother, could I go to heaven 
Through Old England, T could see. 
Just for once, those boughs at Christmas, 
E*er the angels came for me." 

Christmas time drew near in Plymouth 

With no peal of joyous bells, 
With no hint of merry making ; 

Softly now the mother tells 
To her three bright eldest children 

Of her plan for Christmas cheer. 
"Roger shall have one glad Christinas 

If I'm punished for a year.'* 
Under cover of the darkness, 

On that long gone Christmas Eve, 
Sped the three to where the hemlocks 

And the pine trees sigh and breathe. 
In their sweet mysterious fashion, 

To each other on the hill ; 
Chose a giaceful, firm, young hemlock ; 

Fell upon it with a will ; 
Drew it softly to the cottage ; 

Noiselessly crept into bed. 
With gay dreams of merry making 

Dancing through each tired head. 

In the early Christmas morning, 

E're the same bright stars that smiled 
On the Saviour in the manger 


Had grown dim, the mother piled 
And lit the firelogs, while the children 

Draped the windows carefully 
With thick shawls and cloaks and blankets, 

That no prying eye might see. 

Now with quickened pulses, beating 

Half in joy and half in fear, 
Th(»y bring the tree, tie on the trinkets, 

Light the tapers. One low cheer. 
Smothered half, bursts from the children. 

While glad tears her dark eyes fill ; 
" Hush ! " says mother, " Go bring lioger, 

And they bring him, sleeping still. 

Now he wakes, — " Oh ! Mother, — Lucy — 
Rupert ! Ls it England, say. 
Or is it heaven? ** '' No, dear Roger," 
"It is only Christmas day,'* 

They have only boughs in England, 
While we have a tree," "How grand ! " 
Roger cries with eyes asparkle, 
" O yes ! now I understand." 

" I've awakened here in Plymouth, 
But 'tis merry Christmas morn ; — 
Were the trees on all the hillsides 
Lit that way when Christ was born ? 


u "Were *' — What's that? Tis some one rapping 
At the window, at the door ! 
And the frightened children, trembling, 
Crouch upon the cottage floor. 

Hark! a voice ! ''Rachel! Oh! Rachel!" 

Oh^ my husband! and once more 
Captain Olcott's with his loved ones, 

And the neighbors, by the score. 
Troop in to enjoy the greetings. 

" What is this? A Christmas tree!'* 
" Please, sirs," bravely piped wee Roger, 

" Mother did it all for me.*' 

*' You may have it all for bringing 

My dear father home again," 
Something left these words unspoken 

On stern lips, " Tis foolish, vain ! *' 
Something, too, the gay tree whispered 

Of their far off native land. 
Till the sternest one among them, 

A grave leader of the band, 
Bent his head and humbly answered. 

In a broken voice and low, 
" 7 will pluck a twig^ young Roger ^ 

For the sake of long ago,'* 

Through the low door of the cottage, 
Troop the people, one by one, 


Bearing each a spray of hemlock, 

Wliile the pale December sun 
Marvels at their softenetl faces, 

And the childreD, wild, within 
Daiice for joy till all the tapers 

Tremble with tjieir men'y din. 

— A.. Chase 

IVrliiipH sonic of our littl« readers will lie j^IjwI lo Icarii 

thiit little KogLT (li<l not die after all. Whether it was the 

ChriistnitiH tree, or the f^lad sm-priHC of his father's hoiiie- 

cominn;, or the coiiifortH which the fatlier brought with liira 

or all ])ut tojrether, wo Oiiiiiiot s;iy, but from that ilay he 

fjiTW Ktrnn5>;er and lived fur many years. 

f ilARLDY know when the IjcUcf in witches fii-st sprang 
up in England. There was one time, when James the 
First was king, that England wa« wild with excitement over 
witehcuaft. This stupid king Ijclieved there were witches in 
the foresta, in the rivera, in the air, and I don't know where 
else. He atood in mortal fear of them, and Itclieved every 
strange old woman he saw might l)e a witch and ahout to 
work some evil charm on him. Therefore lie caused many 
supposed witches to be hanged. 

■ It is no wonder that, from time to time, witch excitements 
sprang uj) in the colonies. They died out soon, however, 
without much harm being done. 

But in the year 1602 there sprang up such a fire of ex- 
citement over the witch belief, that n() power seemed able to 
quell it. It seems strange to us, in these days, that grown 
up men and women could be so foolish. These people 
believed that the cause of witchcraft was the devil ; when a 
person was bewitched, that meant that the devil had taken 



possession of that person, and was making him do the most 
terrible things. The devil, they believed, was an enormous 
creature, with a long tail, a pair of horns, and terrible hoofs. 
He could take all sorts of shapes, and was often known to 
take the form of a black cat. He might, also, take the form 
of a spider or a flea. 

The excitement over witchcraft in Salem was started in a 
minister's famiiy. 

One day his little girl began to behave very strangely. 
The minister, being a strong believer in witchcraft, declared 
at once that the child was bewitched. He begged the diild 
to tell him who had bewitched her ; and the child, frightened 
half out of her wits by her father's terrible stories, cried 
out that it was a certain old woman who lived near by. 
The poor old woman was brought into the presence of the 
child. The child, excited as she was, now, probably, be- 
lieved that the old woman had, indeed, afflicted her; and, 
frightened still more when she was brought before her, the 
child fell into convulsions. This, the minister thought, was 
sure proof; and the old woman was loaded with chains and 
thrown into prison. 

Soon others in Salem began to declare themselves be- 
witched. If the butter would not come, the housewives 
declared there were witches in their churns ; if the animals 
on the farms died, it was said to be the work of witches. 
Every possible disaster was laid at the door of witchcraft. 


At last, not only the poor old women friendless and alone, 
were accused, but young women, and even children, were 
burned and hanged and imprisoned for being witches. 

T shall not fill your head with stories of the cruel, cixiel 
treatment of these people. When you are older you can 
read them if you want to. You will understand better how 
it came about then, and it will show you that the world is 
growing wiser everyday ; for I don't suppose you could 
find one person in England or America to-day who would, 
for a minute, believe such silly stories. And still there 
stands the old hil!, now called Gallows Hill, the very place 
upon whi(;h the gallows stood on which the witches were 
hanged ! 


Althou^rh the excitement over witchcraft was hiorhest and 
hottest in Salem, there was no small amount of it in all the 
other towns. In the town of Boston it took such a firm 
hold upon the people that one woman, the sister of one of 
the governors, one who had, therefore, hosts of friends who 
used their power and influence to save her, was hanged, as 
a witch, on Boston Common. 


Mrs. Anne Hibbins was the wife of a w ealthy merchant in 
Boston. Mrs. Hibbins hadj we fear, a very proud, selfish 
disposition which caused her neighbors to dislike her most 
heartily. Being the wife of a wealthy merchant, she rather 
looked down upon her more humble friends, and was not at 
all careful to hide her feelings from them. When she and 
her husband were quite old, there came a long line of 
business troubles, which swept away their money, leaving 
them as poor as the poorest of their neighbors. 

Mrs. Hibbins' crabbed disposition did not grow any 
sweeter under this misfortune, you may be sure. She grew 
to be so ugly and so cruel to the little children that they 
would run screaming to their mothers if she came towards 
them. She had very sharp eyes and ears, and seemed to 
see and hear all that happened in the town. She was, also, 
very keen, and was ""sure to ferret out the very boy that 
stole her apples, or stoned her cat, or broke her windows. 
At last, the mothers began whispering that they believed 
she was a witch. " The Devil himself tells her these 
things," said they, "else how does she know everything 
that happens ? " 

As they grew to fear her more and more, they l)egan 
really to believe she was a witch. Many a mother would 
run into her house and hide her baby if the cross old woman 
was seen comino:. Soon her nei<i:lil)ors became so sure that 
she was a witch, that they went to the town officers about 


it; and in a very, very short time, all Boston was filled with 
fear of tliis unhappy old woman, whose selfish, proud lieaK 
had made her such a disagreeable object. This fear of her 
having broken out, it was not long before the people began 
to clamor for her death. Every accident in the town was 
laid to her; every sickness in the homes was laid to her^ 
every trouble in the church was laid to her. 

At last, she was publicly accused, and thrown into prison. 
Her l)r()ther, who stood high in the colony, made no effort 
to save her ; her three sons, whom she loved with all the 
tenderness of which she was capa])le, were all away and 
linew nothing of her arrest. And so the poor old woman, 
who had once held her head so hi<2:h, was dra<ri2fed forth from 
her prison, tried, and sentenced to be hanged. After she 
was hanged, the pe()i)le went back to their homes satisfied 
that in hanging a witch they had done a good deed, one 
which the Heavenly Father would reward them for! 

The dead body of this old woman was shamefully treated. 
Her clothes were stripi)ed off that there might be found the 
scars which were said to ])e on the bodies of all witches. 
She was then buried in some obscure place, for it was not 
permitted that witches should be placed in l)urial grounds 
with Christian people. 

And all this hat)pened in the good old town of Boston, 
only about two hundred years ago. 

From Iht original pi^ertnoa at Ike Court Bauit. 




In 1688, the children of a Mr. Goodwin began to behave in 
the strangest manner. They ran out their tongues, they 
twisted themselves into all sorts of shapes, they mewed 
like cats, they barked like dogs, and they were even said to 
fly through the air and quack like geese. 

" The children are bewitched ! " cried the parents. 

"The children are bewitched !" cried the neighbors. 

" The children are bewitched ! " cried the whole town. 

Old Cotton Mather, the most excitable preacher in the 
colonies, was called to see the children. 

"The devil has them in his power," said he, wagging his 
head wisely. 

"The devil has us ! the devil has us ! " cried the children. 

"They should be made to read this good book,'' said 
Cotton Mather, passing to them a book called " Food for 

Now this was a dry, stupid old book, which he himself 
had written, and no more interesting to healthy wide-awake 
children than an old almanac would be. 

" We won't read it ! we won't read it ! " screamed the 
children, prancing around like wild creatures. 

"Do you hear that?" cried Cotton Mather. "Won't 
read my book ! won't read my book ! Sure proof that the 
devil has them I ** 


Then the preachers from Boston came to Mr. Goodwm's 
nonie to hold a long fast and to pray over the unfortunate 

"Who can have bewitched these infants?" asked the 

"It must be old Goody Glover," sobbed Mrs. Goodwin. 
'She threatened me only a few days since." 

'^ Sure enough ! sure enough ! " cried the furious preach- 
ers, and away they flew to drag old Goody Glover to the 

"You're a witch ! you're a witch ! " screamed the people. 

Poor weak old woman ! they screamed at her and threat- 
ened her, until her mind gave way, and she acknowledged 
that she was a witch. 

The children, too, wrought up to a state of excitement 
close on to insanity, were screaming and crying and behav- 
mg worse than ever. 

'' She is pinching me ! she is" biting me ! she is burning 
me I " they would cry. 

At last old Goody Glover was tried and sentenced to be 
hanged on a great tree on Boston Common. 

It doesn't seem possible that only two hundred years 
ago people could have been so ciniel and so foolish. 

By and by not only poor old women were accused, but 
young people, some of them from the leading families in 
the colonies. Everybody had accepted this wicked belief . 


doubting not so long as no one but poor, friendless old 
women hiid Iieen ticcused. But when, at last, the young 
people and the wealthy people who had friends to defend 
them begun to suffer, then the people began to come to 
their sen«ert. 

"How do we know that this man saw Goody Glover 
flying on a bvooiiiMtiek ? How do we know that he saw 
Martha Corey turn into a black t^at? How do we know 
that \w saw tlic eliildren ride up the staira on a white 
horw!?" they began to iwk when people came forth at 
a witeli'M trial to testify to these wonderful Hights. 

" ■\V<i do not know ." the judges at last honestly deelareil ; 
anil from that time tlie witehcnift exeifcnient died away. 

One of tlie I'iiief believers in thiw eniel nonsense was 
t;otton Miitlier. It is said, hi)wever, that when he became 
old he deeply ri;gn^ttf^<l the part he had taken in it and 
frankly eontessed that he would give years to undo the 
harm lie had done. 



\/OU would suppose, after all the Puritans had suffered 
because of their desire to have their own style of church 
worship, that they would ])e perfectly willing to let all 
other people have the same freedom that they themselves 
had soufifht. 

But it was not so. Some of them were quite as 
determined that no one else should have any freedom as 
Queen Eliztibeth had been that they should not. As har- 
mony in all things seemed necessary to them, they hesitated 
at no punishment for those who objected in any way to the 
Puritan form of worship or the Puritan belief. 

There was one young woman who, because she w^ould not 

assent to every word her people bade her believe, was led 

out to a public place, tied to a post, and whipped. Indeed, 

8o cruel were the Puritans to all who did not believe as they 



did, that the Puritans in England began to beg them to be 
more generous. 

There was one man named Eoger Williams, who could 
not bear the strict watch the Puritans kept over him. And 
when, at last, he heard that they were planning to send him 
back to England in chains, he fled from the colony. He 
was pursued by the enraged Puritans, but, thanks to the 
kindness of some Indians, they could not find him. 

He went to that part of the country now called Rhode 
Island, and, before very long, many of his friends in Salem 
followed him. 

They built a town and named it Providence. In his 
colony, Roger Williams declared that every one should be 
free to worship as he pleased. There Catholic^ and 
Protestants, Episcopalians and Puritans, Baptists and 
Quakers, were allowed each to act as seemed to them best 
in their own churches. 

Ro«:er Williams did not for^^et the kindness of the Indians. 
He learned to speak their language, and si)ent much of his 
time with them, teaching them to read and work. 

You may be sure his people all loved such a good, 
generous-hearted man as this. At one time, when he had 
been away in England nearly two years, the whole colony 
crossed the river to meet him as he returned. 

The old men and the young men, the old women and the 
young women, and all the children met him with flowers and 



songs and every sign of joy. Roger Williams' kind old 
heart was touched when he saw how his people loved him, 
and he was not ashamed to let the tears run down his cheeks, 
as he thanked them for their love. Kind old K()<rer 
Williams ! 

Jhe Quaker?. 

HERE had sprung up in 
Eno^land another class of 
l)e()ple, who went much fur- 
ther in their idea of simi)le 
form of church worship than 
even the Puritans had. 
These people, called Quakers, would have no format all. 
They believed the best, and the way most pleasing to 
God, was for them to go into their little churches, with no 
minister, no singing, no i)raying, and sit there, perfectly 
quiet, fixing their minds only on holy things. This, com- 
pared with the elaborate form of worshi[) in the English 
Church, was certainly a great change, to say the least. 

The English Church, which thought the Puritans had been 
foolish enough, thought these last people more than foolish 
— they thought them mad. 


There is a funny little story connected with these Quakers, 
which shows how they came to receive their peculiarnanie. 
It is said that one of these people was brought for trial 
before an English judge. The English judge having been 
rather severe, the Quaker turned to him and said, "Dost 
thou not (|uake with fear before the Great Judge, who this 
day hath heard thy cruel judgment upon his chosen people ? " 
But just then, the Quaker, who was very nervous and ex- 
citable began to shiver and shake and quake to such an 
extent that the whole court bur.-it into a roar of lausfhter. 
Frcmi that time these i)eopIe were nicknamed "Quakers." 

Quaker^ in ^merica. 

The Quakers in due time were driven from England, ;is 
the Puritans Imd l)ecn l)efore them. They, too, came 
over to America, li()i)ing to tind freedom to worship God in 
the way ihoy thought best. But how did the Puritans 
receive them ? Kindly you would sui)i)()se, had you not just 
learned how they treated Roger Williams. But you will 
not be surprised, now, to hear that they treated the Quakers 


worse, by far, than they had treated aay other people before 

The Quakers were strange in their looks and in theif 
manneri), it is tnic; liiit so were the Puritans ns to that 
I am almoet ashamed to tell 3-ou how the Mnssaehusetts 
Puritans used these people. They 
had them whipped in the streets, 
tliey cnt off their cars and 
then noaes ; fhey put cleft 
sticks upon their tongues 
to keep Iheni from speak- 
mg, and they punished 
Ihom mostciuelly in many 
olhci ways. Until withiii 
a few yLars, tliere stood 
on the beiuttiful Common 
n Bo=ton an elm-tree, to 
whose Iionghs the Puritans 
langed a woman named Miiry Dyer, heeause she was a 
Quaker and preached the Quaker iloctriiifs, — the doetrine 
of peace and good will towinds men. 


m' :.: 




jV[lgTR£gg ^NNE ^UTCHINgON. 

It would be a very happy thing if the disgraceful story 
of the treatment of this woman by the early Massachu- 
setts people could be forever erased from the pages of our 
history, for, although we are so proud of these brave 
Puritans in many ways, we have to admit that they were 
)ften vory bitter and narrow-minded, and even cruel. 

It was about thiity-five years after the Mayflower entered 
Plymouth harbor that the first Quakers came. 

There had been many changes in the colonies in that time. 
The little children ha i now come to be middle-aged men and 
tvomen, with children of their own. The men and women, 
who had done the hard work of settling the little home at 
Plymouth, had now grown to be quite old, and very, very 
many of them had, long since, been laid away in the qaain^ 
little burying-grounds. 

Many, many other men and women had come over from 
England, so that now, instead of thinking of a few people 
living in their huts at Plymouth, you must think of little 
towns all along the coast, having residences, stores, churches, 
and schools, all of which were quite fair buildings for the 
times. The Old South Church, the Old North Church, and 
King's Chapel, which stand now in Boston, were built in 
these early times. 


Now, one would suppose that, with their towns all so 
happy and prosperous, these Puritans might have found it 
in their hearts to be kind to those Quakers who fled to them 
for protection. But, alas I the poor Quakers found on!}; 
too quickly that, in coming from England to Massachusetts 
they had but jumped from the frying-pan into the fire, astlK 
old saying goes. 

Mistress Anne Hutchinson, as she was called, was not a 
Quaker, but I shall have to tell you her story just here, 
because she and Mrs. Dyer, of whom I shall tell you next, 
were such firm friends that one has always to think of them 
both together. 

Mrs. Hutchinson was born in Eng^und, and lived there 
until she was a middle-aged woman. When she came to 
Boston, both she and her husband were received by the best 
families of the town, and things moved along very quietly. 

But after she had been comfortably settled in her new 
home, she began to work among the people as seemed to her 
right. Her father in England had been a preacher, and 
had always be<;n fond of filling his home with other 
preachers, with whom he would often discuss religious 
subjects for hours at a time. 

These talks Anne had heard and enjoyed, almost from hei 
babyhood. Is it any wonder, then, that, having been 
brought up in this way, she should feel greatly interested 
in all those things which interest ministers, and should even 


feel that she herself would like to be a preacher ? And so 
it came about that when she came to Boston, she began by 
gathering her friends at her own house, for the purpose of 
talking with them. Her talks to these women began to 
grow more and more popular; people flocked from other 
towns to hear her. 

At last the minister^ grew alarmed. They feared she 
was getting a stronger hold upon the people than they them- 
selves had gotten, which was very likely true. They raised 
such a storm about her head that she was brought before a 
company of ministers and accused of heresy ; but Mrs. 
Hutchinson was a woman of keen mind, and was quite able 
to defend herself against the petty charges of these men. 
Failing to frighten her by this method, they, at last, had her 
brought into court to be tried, just as people to-day are 
tried for stealinor and killino:. 

I cannot here tell you the cruel lies that were told in 
court against this woman, whose crime, after all, was 
merely that she had tried to preach the word of God as it 
seemed to her right. It was a cruel, unjust trial, and at the 
end of it Mrs. Hutchinson was banished from the State. 
Mr. Hutchinson stood bravely by his wife through all her 
persecution, and, when the trial was over, took her at once 
to Rhode Island. Many of the Boston people who loved 
Mrs. Hutchinson went with her. There they lived for 
some time very happily. 


Five yetirs {ifter, her husband died ; and then the 
cowardly Indians, thinking that the women-folks could not 
j)r()tect themselves, attacked her house and brutally mur- 
dered th(^ whole family, excepting one daughter, whom thev 
carried off as a captive. 

It is said that Mrs. Hutchinson was a very gentle, kind- 
hearted, womanly woman, always ready to help the needy 
and suH'eriiiu*. It s(^ems stranije, indeed, to us that such n 
woman could have been so persecuted by people who 
pi'et(MHled to 1)(^ so wis(^ and just. 


During all this time the persecution of the Quakers had 
been carri(Hl on with increasin<i: vi<j:()r. The one thin": that 
exasperated the Puritans with them above all other things, 
was the fact that they allowed the women to preach and 
pray as they lik(Ml. "A preaching woman," said the 
Puritans, "is a disgrace to religion ! Away with such!" 

You can imagine, therefore, how annoyed the Puritans 
were with Mary Dyer when she firmly took her stand by Mrs, 
Hutchinson through her cruel trial, walked side by side with 


her out of her church when its people had refused to have 
her among them, and at last went bravely with her into 

For a long time Mary Dyer lived quietly in Rhode Island. 
Meantime she had l>ecome a Quaker, and when, therefore, 
she heard of the cruel treatment of the Quakers in Boston, 
she was determined to go to their aid. Twice was she 
driven from the town, and threatened with hanging if she 
came again. But Mary Dyer was fearless ; her one thought 
was that her friends, the Quakers, were in prison, many of 
them dying of fever and hunger. A third time she entered 
the town. She was at once seized, brought before the judge, 
and condemned to be hanged. Many friends begged that 
she might be spared, but the judge would not yield. 

On the 27th of October, 1659, Boston Common was again 
to witness the disgraceful hanging of an innocent woman 
The streets were thronged with people, all anxious to gel 
one glance even at the unhappy Quakeress. By her side 
walked two young men, also Quakers, who were to be 
hanged with her. 

It was one of these who first ascended the fatal ladder. 
As he was speaking of his faith, and his willingness to die> 
some one in the crowd called out: ''Hold thy tongue I 
Art thou going to die with a lie in thy mouth?" 

Soon the other young man was led forth. As the rope 
was being fastened he cried, '' Know all ye, that we die not 
for wrong doing, but for conscience' sake I 


It was now Mary's turn Her two friends were hanging 
dead before her eyes. Fearlessly she mounted the scaffold, 
and quietly allowed the hangman to fasten the blindfold and 
the rope. AM w^as ready. The great crowd stood breath- 
less. The hangman raised his hand to give the signal, when 
there was heard a cry from the distance, '' Stop ! stop ! she 
is reprieved, the Governor has reprieved her ! ** 

Shouts of joy rang through the Common, mingled with 
hisses from those who had longed to see her hanged She 
was taken back to the prison, where she was received by 
her brave son, who looked upon her as one brought back 
from death. He it was who had besought the Governor to 
save his mother, and at last won from him her reprieve. 

Joyfully the son carried away the mother to their home 
in Rhode Island. I wish I could tell you that the good 
woman lived out her days there with her brave boy, happy 
and free ; but it was not so. Before months had 
passed, again she was seized with the idea that it was her 
duty to go again to Boston and speak for her people. 
Nothing could keep her from it ; even the prayers and tears 
of her son who loved her so could not prevail upon hei 
to give up the dangerous journey. 

Hardly was she within the limits of the city before she 
was seized upon by the officers and again carried before the 
judge. The judge, exasperated with her foolhardiness, as 
he called it, offered her once more her choice between hang' 


iDg and promising to leave the colcoy forever. Sbe woald 
nut accei)t the chunce of eacupe, and wus sentenced to be 
banged on the morrow morn at nine o'clock. 

Half wild with grief, Mary's husliand be^ed the judge 
to save her once more; but be, saying that sbe had made 
her own fate, would not change her Bentence. 

At tho appointed hour the oflScer led her forth from the 
prison to the Common, and there, before the eyes of a great 
number of people, she was hanged, declnring with her la:it 
breath that eho was giving her life not for any wrong act ol 
bers, but for her religion's sake. 


THE Qusikcra certainly were in pi-eiit need of some viic 
who would call them together and find for them a place 
of safety. Such a leader appeared at last, This leader 
was William Penn. He was the son of a wealthy English- 
man, who had been brought up to believe only in the English 


Church, and to hold in contempt all such people as Puritans 
and Quakers. 

Imagine that father's astonishment when his son, having 
returned from college, came before him dressed in the queer 
garb of a Quaker, and told him that he had resolved to join 
these much abused people. 

The old irentleman was horrified. He scolded and he 
argued ; he raved and he threatened, but not one whit was 
the son moved by it all. He sent him abroad, hoping that 
the gay life at Paris and other great cities of Europe would 
cure him of this foolish freak he had taken. Penn came 
back to England still a Quaker. His father's patience was 
now exhausted ; he allowed Penn to live in the house, but 

he would have nothing to say to him, and would not even 
look at him. 

When his father died, Penn came at once to America with 
a large party of Quakers and began a settlement. To this 
settlement he gave the name Philadelphia, which means 
''brotherly love," 

The king of England had already given that tract of land 
which we now call Pennsylvania to Penn ; still he was not 
willing to take it from the Indians without paying them for 
it. He held a council with them under a large oak. There 
he made a treaty with them, and the agreements were made 
peaceably and honestly. Think what a strange picture it 
must have made ! There was the Englishman in his long- 



Hkirted, drab coat and broad hat, while all around him stood 
th(! Indians georpeous in their feathers and war-paint, glitter- 
_ing with strings of wampum, and wrapped about with furs. 
Like Roger Williams, Penn was always loved and 
reverenced hy ihe Indians. The great oak under which the 
treaty was made has long since decayed and fallen ; but in 
its place to-day stands a monument which tells the story of 
Penn and Hie treaty. 

The i' 

e I'ennsylvani^i Quakers had learned a noble lesson 
their persecutions,— they had learned to respect the 


religions of all other people. Here in this "city of 
brotherly love" they wished that all who would, whatever 
their religion, might come and dwell together. For twenty- 
two years Delaware and Pennsylvania were one State. 
Then Delaware was allowed to stand as a colony of itself, 
having its own laws, perfectly free from Pennsylvania. 


We hear much of the fair dealings of these early Quakers 
with the Indians, and the Pennsylvanians have indeed good 
reason to be proud of the early history of their colony. 

There were some lands, which, in 1698, Penn found 
were excluded from his first purchase ; and, as he was very 
desirous of obtaining them, he made the proposal to the 
Indians that he would buy those lands, if they wished to 
sell them. 

At first they refused ; but finally, to please their "Father 
Onas," as they called Penn, they said he should have as 
much land as a young man could travel round in one day. 
And in pay they should receive a certain amount of 
Enoflish goods. 

Though this plan of measuring the land was of their own 
selection, yet they were greatly dissatisfied witli it, after it 
had been tried ; for the young man, chosen to walk off the 


^...>3 /.«<«■ A-wA. ;Z.„ .J .£.^-3 



track of land, walked so fast and far as greatly to astonish 

The governor observed this dissatisfaction, and asked 
the cause. 

"The walker cheated us," said the Indians. 

"Ah, how can it be?" asked Penn. "Did you not 
choose yourselves to have the land measured in this way ? " 

"True," replied the Indians ; " but white brother make a 
big walk." 

Some of Penn's aids waxing warm, said the bargain was . 
a fair one, and insisted that the Indians ought to abide by 
it ; and if not, should be compelled to. 

"Compelled!" exclaimed Penn, "how can you compel 
them without bloodshed? Don't you see this looks to 
murder?" Then turning with a smile to the Indians, he 
said : " Well, brothers, if you have given us too much land for 
the goods first agreed on, how much more will satisfy you ? " 

This gratified them ; and they mentioned the quantity of 
cloth, and number of fish-hooks, with which they would be 

These were cheerfully given ; and the Indians, shaking 
hands with Penn, went away smiling. 

After they were gone, the governor looking round on his 
friends, said, "Some of you spoke just now of compelling 
these poor creatures to stick to their bargain ; that is, 
in plain English, to fight and kill them, and all a])out 
a little piece of landJ*^ 


This fairness characterized all Penn's dealings with the 
red men, and they, in consequence, were his warm friends. 

Jhe '^^hite ]^eather. 

This treaty of peace made between the Quakers and the 
Indians had no other than the blue sky, the l)right sun, and 
the forests for witnesses. But the Indians were a true- 
hearted race ; and if they were treated with any degree of 
fairness, whatever, were ready and willing to be honorable 
in their dealings with the white man. There was a simple 
gratitude about them that was like a child's ; and it is a pity 
that other white men, not Quakers, had not wisdom enough 
to deal fairly with these simple-souled people. 

The history of this treaty was kept l)y the Indians by 
means of their strings of wampum, and long afterwards they 
would tell the story over to their children, bidding them 
always in their fights and war-makings to remember their 
father's promises to the good Quaker, William Penn. 

And so it was that in the years that followed, when war 
was raging on every side, in all the surrounding States, not 
one drop of Quaker blood was ever spilled. 

There is a little story told of how one Quaker saved the 
lives of manv families about him. 


One morning, some Indians, incensed at the behavioi 
of eertiiin colonists up the river, fiercely set forth in full war 
dress, war paint and all, cruelly bent upon revenge. 

On the borders of the forest toward which they strode, 
lived a <ro()d (Quaker and his family. As the Indians 
api)roachcd, tlu^ (Quaker went forth to greet them. Know- 
ing how h()nora])ly the treaty with the Quakers was held by 
th(^^e red men, tli(^ Quaker had no fear for his own family. 

" But they mean bloodshed to the colonists up the river I 
am sure," said he to his wife. "I must try to turn them 

So generous and frank was the Quaker's greeting that 
the fierce warriors, thirsting as they were for blood, melted 
in the wann sun-light of his gentle heart, and turned back 
to their wigwams, the massacre given up for that day at 

As they went away, one of the Indians climbed up on 
the little porch over the door, and fastened there the '« white 
feather of pea(;e ;" which was a mark among these Indians 
that the house ui)()n which that was placed should nevei 
under any provocation be molested. 

AVar raged on every sid(^ in the days that followed ; many 
cruel deeds were done, and hundreds of colonists were slain • 
but tlie good Quaker and his family dwelt in safety, and 
olept witliout fear of hann from their savage neio"bors- 


In f;urT)j»e tlicTC h ii siiiull country culled Holland, This 
is ii (]iicfr little cDiintiy ; it is flat, and no low that the 
whole coHiitry wotild long ujro hiivc boon swallowed up by 
the oceun had not the Htnrdy people built great walls of 
mud and stone to keep buck the watei'. Holland is some- 
times oilled the land of wind-niill.s. beeiiiise there are so 
many of these great wheels whizzing and whirring about 
the country. Now, this little eountiy wtis far ahead of 
Englan<l in these days of whieh we are reading. Although 
there was hardly a stick of timber in tlie whole land, yet 
Holland built more ships than England had thought of. 


At last some of these industrious ship-merchants cam« 
over to America and settled in that part of the country 
known as New York. 

Henry Hudson was the man who first discovered and 
sailed up the river which is now named for him. 

Like so many other of the explorers, he too was search- 
ing for a short route to the East Indies — that rich country 
in which all merchants had so great an interest. 

It was in 1609 that Henry Hudson, with a little vessel 
called the "Half Moon," sailed up the beautiful river which 
now bears his name. As he entered the bay, the Indians 
came hurrying out from the shores in their canoes, padd- 
ling up to the " Half Moon." 

They were friendly — the Indians were always friendly 
until some act of treachery or cruelty on the part of the 
white men put them on their guard — and ofiered to trade 
with the sailors of the strange " Half Moon." 

Hudson sailed as far up this beautiful river as he could 
with his large vessel, and then sent boats up as far as 
AJbany. '* Perhaps," said he "this river cuts through the 
continent to the other ocean, and will prove to be a short 
route to the Indies." 

But, as you and I know now, he was disappointed in this. 
The river grew less and less navigaDle as it neared its 
source and Hudson was oblia^ed to sail back into New York 
Bay. But so beautiful had the country seemed, and so 


grand and broad was the river, that Hudson, on his return 
to Holland, gave a most glowing description of it — so 
glowing, indeed, that it was not very long before the wide- 
awake, enterprising little country had sent traders to settle 
upon the banks of the river, and to build up villages foi 

The Dutch people went at once to work, building their 
mills with the great whirring sails. The Indians were ter- 
ribly afraid of these monsters, which were able to grind the 
corn and saw the boards. They would sit for hours star- 
ing at the strange things, wondering if they were alive. 
Often they would set fire to them, believing an evil spirit 
must be in them. 

I am Sony to say that these industrious Dutchmen were 

the first to teach the Indians to drink rum and whiskey — 

" fire-water," as they called it. The Dutchmen regretted 

bitterly having taught them to drink the fire-water ; for the 

Indians drunk, soon proved themselves more cruel even 

than the Indians sober. 

It was not very many years before the Dutch ])()ught 

from the Indians the whole island of Manhattan and began 

the building of their city — New Amsterdam, or as it is 

now called. New York. 

It was an odd little city in those days, looking for all the 

world like a little Dutch city dropped down upon the new 



The little wooden houses had gable roofs ; the ends of 
the house were of black and yellow brick ; over the door 
were great iron figures telling when the house was built, 
and on the roof there was sure to be a gay-looking weather 
vane whirling around in the strong wind trying, so it seemed, 
to keep pace with the whirling windmills that stretched 
their great arms out over the city. 

Inside the houses you would find great, roaring fire- 
places, with pictured tiles up and down the sides. Such 
funny pictures ! telling all about Noah and the Ark or 
perhaps about the children of Israel crossing the Red Sea. 
Can you not fancy just how the older brothers and sisters 
used to sit by these great fire-places pointing out the won- 
derful pictures to the little children ? 

I am always glad to think of these little children of the 
Dutch colonists. They were all so much happier and freer 
than the little stift-laced Puritan children. Their homes 
were so much more cheerful, their parents so much less 
grim and severe, there was so much more love and joy 
everywhere about them. 

Such fairy stories as these Dutch people could tell as 
they sat about their great fires in the long winter eveningSj 
or out upon the doorsteps in the warm summer nights. 
Not a forest nor a dale, not a single peak of the beautiful 
Catskills but had its legend or mysterious story. '""* 

When the thunder rolled, the people would say, " Hark I 


that is Henry Hudson and his companions playing at nine 
pins up among the mountains." And the children would 
shout and laugh and say " Good Henry Hudson ! Good Henry 
Hudson ! the wicked sailors could not kill you when they 
bound you and put you afloat on the cold ocean ! The little 
fairies guided you back to your own river and to your own 
blue-topped Catskills. Kind little fairies ! Good Henry 
Hudson ! " 

The Puritans, I suppose, looked upon all such stories as 
nothing but foolish, wicked lies. They could see no beauty 
and no good in such stories, not even for little children. Tg 
them, life was such a stern reality, and God was such a 
severe master, they had no time, so they thought, for any. 
thing but hard work, long sermons and the catechism. 

But the Dutch people had very difl'erent ideas of life. 
To be happy and good natured, to love their children and 
to try and make them happy and joyous as children should 
be, was to them quite as good a way to worship God as the 
Puritans' cold, hard way. 

And so they heaped their great fires higher and sang and 
laughed together, told their fairy stories, and in their in- 
nocent way, had grand, good times ! 

Such Christma^s trees as they had I such Christmas din- 
ners I Such jolly New Year'is days when everybody wished 
everybody else such worlds of joy for the coming year! 
And such happy Easters I O, the fun the children had hunt- 




track of land, walked so fast and far as greatly to astonish 

The governor observed this dissatisfaction, and asked 
the cause. 

''The walker cheated us," said the Indians. 

"Ah, how can it be?" asked Penn. "Did you not 
choose yourselves to have the land measured in this way ? " 

" True," replied the Indians ; " but white brother make a 
big walk." 

Some of Penn's aids waxing warm, said the bargain was . 
a fair one, and insisted that the Indians ought to abide by 
it; and if not, should be compelled to. 

"Compelled!" exclaimed Penn, "how can you compel 
them without bloodshed? Don't you see this looks to 
murder?" Then turning with a smile to the Indians, he 
said : " Well, brothers, if you have given us too much land for 
the goods first agreed on, how much more will satisfy you ? " 

This gratified them ; and they mentioned the quantity of 
cloth, and number of fish-hooks, with which they would ])e 

These were cheerfully given ; and the Indians, shaking 
hands with Penn, went away smiling. 

After they were gone, the governor looking round on his 
friends, said, "Some of you spoke just now of compelling 
these poor creatures to stick to their bargain ; that is, 
in plain English, to fight and kill them, and all al)Out 
a little piece of landJ^ 



This fairness characterized all Perm's dealings with the 
red men, and they, in consequence, were his warm friends. 

Jhe Y/hite }^eather. 

This treaty of peace made between the Quakers and the 
Indians had no other than the blue skv, the bri<j:ht sun, and 
the forests for witnesses. But the Indians were a true- 
hearted race; and if they were treated with any degree of 
fairness, whatever, were ready and willing to be lionora])le 
in their dealings with the white man. There was a simple 
gratitude about them that was like a child's ; and it is a pity 
that other white men, not Quakers, had not wisdom enough 
to deal fairly with these simple-souled people. 

The history of this treaty was kept by the Indians by 
means of their strings of wampum, and long afterwards they 
would tell the story over to their children, bidding them 
always in their fights and war-makings to remember their 
father's promises to the good Quaker, William Penn. 

And so it was that in the years that followed, when war 
was raging on every side, in all the surrounding States, not 
one drop of Quaker blood was ever spilled. 

There is a little story told of how one Quaker saved the 
lives of manv families about him. 


One morning, some Indians, incensed at the behavioi 
of certain colonists up the river, fiercely set forth in full war 
dress, war paint and all, cruelly bent upon revenge. 

On the l)orders of the forest toward which they strode, 
lived a good Quaker and his family. As the Indians 
approached, the Quaker went forth to greet them. Know- 
ing how hon()ral)ly the treaty with the Quakers was held bj' 
these red men, the Quaker had no fear for his own family. 

" But they mean bloodshed to the colonists up the river I 
am sure," said he to his wife. "I must try to turn them 

So generous and frank was the Quaker's greeting that 
the fierce warriors, thirsting as they were for blood, melted 
in the warm sun-light of his gentle heart, and turned back 
to their wigwams, the massacre given up for that day at 

As they went away, one of the Indians climbed up on 
the little porch over the door, and fastened there the ** white 
feather of peace ; " which was a mark among these Indians 
that the house upon which that was placed should nevei 
under any provocation be molested. 

War raged on every side in the days that followed ; many 
cruel deeds were done, and hundreds of colonists were slain ; 
])ut the good Quaker and his family dwelt in safety, and 
olept without fear of harm from their savage neigbors. 

HEintT aOWOH"* «™f. 


Jhe Putch in America. 

In Europe there is a Miiiiill country called Holland, This 
i» a quoer little country ; it is flat, and so low that the 
whole country would long ago have l»een swallowed up by 
the ocean had not the stui-dy i>ooi)le built great walls of 
mud and stone ti> kcei) back the water, Holland is some- 
timcb called the land of wind-niilla, because there ai-e so 
many of these great wheels whizzing and whimng about 
the country. Now, this little countiy was far ahead of 
England in tln^se days of which wc ai-e reading. Although 
there was hardly a stick of tiinlier in the whole land, yet 
Holland built more ships than England had thought of. 


At last some of these industrious ship-merchants cam« 
over to America and settled in that part of the country 
known as New York. 

Henry Hudson was the man who first discovered and 
sailed up the river which is now named for him. 

Like so many other of the explorers, he too was search- 
ing for a short route to the East Indies — that rich country 
in which all merchants had so great an interest. 

It was in 1609 that Henry Hudson, with a little vessel 
called the "Half Moon," sailed up the beautiful river which 
now bears his name. As he entered the bay, the Indians 
came hurrying out from the shores in their canoes, padd- 
ling up to the " Half Moon.^' 

They were friendly — the Indians were always friendly 
until some act of treachery or cruelty on the part of the 
white men put them on their guard — and ofiered to trade 
with the sailors of the strange *' Half Moon." 

Hudson sailed as far up this beautiful river as he could 
with his large vessel, and then sent boats up as far as 
AJbany. " Perhaps," said he "this river cuts through the 
continent to the other ocean, and will prove to be a shori 
route to the Indies." 

But, as you and I know now, he was disappointed in this. 
The river grew less and less navigable as it neared its 
source and Hudson was obliged to sail back into New York 
Bay. But so beautiful had the country seemed, and so 


grand and broad was the river, that Hudson, on his return 
to Holland, gave a most glowing description of it — so 
glowing, indeed, that it was not very long before the wide- 
awake, enterprising little country had sent traders to settle 
upon the banks of the river, and to build up villages for 

The Dutch people went at once to work, building their 
mills with the great whirring sails. The Indians were ter- 
ribly afraid of these monsters, which were able to grind the 
corn and saw the boards. They would sit for hours star- 
ing at the strange things, wondering if they were alive. 
Often they would set fire to them, believing an evil spirit 
must be in them. 

I am Sony to say that these industrious Dutchmen were 

the first to teach the Indians to drink rum and whiskey — 

" fire-water," as they called it. The Dutchmen regretted 

bitterly having taught them to drink the fire-water ; for the 

Indians drunk, soon proved themselves more cruel even 

than the Indians sober. 

It was not very many years before the Dutch ])ought 

from the Indians the whole island of Manhattan and began 

the building of their city — New Amsterdam, or as it is 

now called. New York. 

It was an odd little city in those days, looking for all the 

world like a little Dutch city dropped down upon the new 



The little wooden houses had gable roofs ; the ends of 
the house were of black and yellow brick ; over the door 
were great iron figures telling when the house was built, 
and on the roof there was sure to be a gay-looking weather 
vane whirling around m the strong wind trying, so it seemed, 
to keep pace with the whirling windmills that stretched 
their groat arms out over the city. 

Inside the houses you would find great, roaring fire- 
places, with pictured tiles up and down the sides. Such 
funny pictures ! telling all about Noah and the Ark or 
perhaps about the children of Israel crossing the Red Sea. 
Can you not fancy just how the older brothers and sisters 
used to sit by these great fire-places pointing out the won- 
derful pictures to the little children ? 

I am always glad to think of these little children of the 
Dutch colonists. They were all so much happier and freer 
than the little stiff-laced Puritan children. Their homes 
were so much more cheerful, their parents so much less 
grim and severe, there was so much more love and joy 
everywhere about them. 

Such fairy stories as these Dutch people could tell as 
they sat about their great fires in the long winter eveningSj 
or out upon the doorsteps in the warm summer nights. 
Not a forest nor a dale, not a single peak of the beautiful 
Catskills but had its legend or mysterious story. 

When the thunder rolled, the people would say, " Hark I 


that is Henry Hudson and his companions playing at nine 
pins up among the mountains." And the children would 
shout and laugh and say '' Good Henry Hudson ! Good Henry 
Hudson ! the wicked sailors could not kill you when they 
bound you and put you afloat on the cold ocean ! The little 
fairies guided you back to your own river and to your own 
blue-topped Catskills. Kind little fairies ! Good Henry 
Hudson ! " 

The Puritans, I suppose, looked upon all such stories as 
nothing but foolish, wicked lies. They could see no beauty 
and no good in such stories, not even for little children. To 
them, life was such a stern reality, and God was such a 
severe master, they had no time, so they thought, for any- 
thing but hard work, long sermons and the catechism. 

But the Dutch people had very difl*erent ideas of life. 
To be happy and good natured, to love their children and 
to try and make them happy and joyous as children should 
be, was to them quite as good a way to worship God as the 
Puritans' cold, hard way. 

And so they heaped their great fires higher and sang and 
laughed together, told their fairy stories, and in their in- 
nocent way, had grand, good times ! 

Such Christmas trees as they had ! such Christmas din- 
ners ! Such jolly New Year'^ days when everybody wished 
everybody else such worlds of joy for the coming year ! 
And such happy Easters I O, the fun the children had hunt- 


mg tor eggs, iiiiiking all 
sorti of ornaments of 
them coloring them in 
pretty colors and trim' 
ming them with such 
bright ribbons. 

Yes, these early New 

Yorkers, or Kniekerbock- 

ei8 aa they called them- 

selvc, were just the 

happiest, kindostr-heart- 

ed most good-natured 

people you ever saw ; 

and all New York boya and girls may indeed be proud that 

their State was founded upon so much hearty good will and 

^l^nest happinass. 


There are so many stories to tell in this early history of 
our country that I am going to leave this colony just here. 
It seems too bad, for these Dutch people were so strange in 
their dress and customs, and had such odd ideas, that I 
should like to tell you a score of stories about them. I 
should like to tell you about Rip Van Winkle, who slept for 
twenty years up in the mountains ; I should like to tell you 
about old Ichabod Crane, who thought he was pursued by a 
ghost ; of Henry Hudson and his crew playing nine-pins up 
among the mountains ; but you will have to ask your teacher 
to read to you Irving's Sketch-book and his Knickerbocker 
history. There are stories enough there to keep you all busy 
for a year. But now I must ask you to leave these queer 
old Dutch people and hurry across to Maryland with me. 
There is another kind of people there waiting for us. 


You remember the misery of the people of England 
under Henry, and Mary, and Queen Elizabeth. First, 
they must all be devoted to the English Church to please the 
king : then they must all turn Catholics to please Mary ; 


then back they must turn to the English Church with Queen 
{Elizabeth. It seems very strange to us that it should have 
been considered necessary for a whole country to change its 
religion to suit the religion of the ruler ; but the people in 
those days had not learned that it is not what a person 
believes half as much as what he is that makes him a good 
or a bad citizen. 

There was living in England a certain family of nobles 
who were all strong Catholics. They were, however, very 
willing that other people should profess whatever religion 
they pleased, and in that they were far better than the 
Church of England folks, who were determined that every- 
body should conform to their belief. 

Lord Baltimore, one of the members of this family, gained 
permission from the king, Charles I, to settle in that country 
now called Maryland. In 1633 these people came, bringing 
with them many priests, who had come to convert the 
Indians. They sailed up the Potomac, and there built a 
town, which they named St. Mary's. 

The Indians in this part of the country had not seen the 
white people yet ; and when they saw them sailing up the 
Potomac they rushed down to the banks in wonder. 
Suddenly they gave a great yell, and disappeared in the 
forests. "O," said they, "we have seen a canoe as big as 
an island, and with as many men on it as there are trees in 
the forests I " 


They could not understand that a Kship was built board by 
board, and they wondered where there could be found a tree 
large enough to hollow out such a canoe as that. 

As soon as these English people were settled in their new 
home, they made laws for their colony. Their laws were 
very just and generous, especially in regard to religion. 
They decreed that all persons should be free to worship as 
they pleased in this colony, excepting only Unitarians. 
Those they could not quite make up their minds to receive ; 
but they were so vastly superior to other colonists in their 
liberal regard for other religions, that we can afford to 
forgive them this one bit of intolerance. 

On account of this generous law in the new colony, many 
Puritans from Virginia, who had been persecuted there by 
the Episcopalians, came to Maryland, Quakers came from 
Massachusetts, and many of all classes came from England. 
The colony therefore grew rapidly and prospered. 


Colonies had also been settled in North and South 
Carolina, which had come to be important and flourish- 
ing. I shall say no more about these colonies, for there are 


no stories connected with their settlement which would 
interest little men and women particularly. If you look on 
a map you will find down below Maryland, Virginia, and 
the Carolinas, a State named Georgia. 

On the southern border of South Carolina there is a large 
river, the Savannah. When the Carolinas were settled the 
Indians made great trouble for the white men. They felt 
that the white men were taking their homes from them, and 
that something must be done to drive these new comers 
away. A treaty was at last made with the Indians in which 
the white men promised to make no settlements south of the 
Savannah river. This treaty was not broken for about 
seventy years. Then there came to be a new king in Eng- 
land, named George II. He gave permission to a company 
of Englishmen to come and found a colony south of the 

The man whom the king placed at the head of 
this band of colonists was General Oglethorpe, a wise, 
good man, and a])rave soldier. He thought it wise to send 
a military man ])ecauso there was plainly danger ahead. 

They fully expected the Indians would attack them, and 
then, too, there were Spanish settlements farther south ; and 
they knew only too well that these Spaniards hated the very 
sight of an Englishman. 

In November, 1732, this little band set sail from England. 
There were one hundred and fourteen people in all. They 


were all poor families, English and German, some of whom 
were fleeing persecution, while others came only to make a 
home for their families. 

They chose for their landing-place the present site of 
Savannah, and set to work, industrious men as they were, 
to build their town. 

Their leader sent for the Indian chiefs soon after their 
arrival, and made a treaty with them which was always kept 
as long as General Oglethorpe remained in the colony. 

When the laws of this new colony were drawn up, wise 
General Oglethorpe firmly declared that there should be no 
rum allowed there, and that any sale of it to Indians 
should be punished as one of the greatest crimes. He knew, 
wise man that he was, that no drinking men would be in- 
dustrious enough to keep a colony prosperous, and that it 
would be the very worst thing to allow the Indians to get a 
taste of the fire-water, as the Indians themselves called it. 

Another law Oglethorpe persisted in having made was 
one forbidding the colonists to hold slaves. He had two 
wise reasons for this. He knew that if a white man owned 
slaves who were to do his work, he himself would grow 
lazy and unwilling to labor, and a colony was no place for 
lazy men, or men who felt themselves too good to work. 
Then, too, Oglethorpe believe that slave-holding was not 
right. Even in those early times he was wise' enough to 
know that no man on the face of the earth had a right to 


own the body of another man and treat him as he did his 
horse, expecting him to do his work year in and year out for 
no pay other than his food and his bed at night. 

For a while the colony prospered, as any colony might 
under such a wise leader ; but these colonists were not God-* 
fearing people as were the Puritans and the Quakers, and it 
was not long before some of them began to make bitter 
complaints because they could not have these two things 
which Oglethorpe knew were so bad for them to have — 
rum and slaves. 

They wrote letters to the King of England making all 
sorts of complaints against their leader, until, at last, dis- 
gusted with them, Oglethorpe returned to England, saying 
that he was tired of the very name of colony. 

When the twenty-one years had passed for which Ogle- 
thorpe and his companions had been granted leave to hold 
this land in Georgia, their charter was given back to King 
George. Georgia then belonged to England ; and as England 
cared very little what the colonists in Georgia or in any 
other colony did, they were now free to have their slaves 
and as much strong drink as they liked. 



fffiZ:./A.l L A N T 1 C - 


3^\ OCEAN 

teijl-of Mm 



tjEFOHE taking you any farther in these stories, I want 
you to stop for a few minutes and look back with me 
over what you have read. By and by, in readinji; history, 
you will hear about " the thirteen orijrinal colonies ; " hut if 
you do not know what they were or what the term means, 
it will be impossible for you to understand much that 


Now, the thirteen original colonies were the thirteen 
settlements which were made in these earlv times, and 
about which we have just been reading. 

I will give them here in the order in which they were 
settled ; and if I were you, I would learn them to say to my 
teacher. You will find it very easy to do, and by and by 
when you come to really study history, as your big brothers 
and sisters are doing, you will be very glad that you have 
these things learned. 

1607. — Virginia was settled first by the English ; who 
came over, some to make money and some for the love of 

The leading man in this colony was John Smith. 

1620. — Massachusetts was the second colony. This was 
settled by the Puritans, who had fled from England because 
of "religious persecution." 

1623. — Xew York was settled by a company of Dutch 

1629. — New Hampshire, which at the beginning belonged 
to Massachusetts, was in 1()29 set off by itself, allowed its 
own ijovernor and its own laws, and was then named New 

1630. — Connecticut, too, belonged at first to Massachu- 
setts ; but in 1630 this, like New Hampshire, was set off by 


1633. — 1635. — In 1633, all the country south of Virginia 
was granted to a company, who made a settlement on the 
Chowan river. Two years later another colony was settled 
farther north. This whole country was called Carolina until 
1729. Then it was divided into North and South Carolina. 

1634. — Cecil Calvert, a noble Englishman, wishing to 
provide a place for the Catholics who were then being 
persecuted in England, gained permission to found a colony 
in the part of the country now called Maryland. 

1636. — Rhode Island was settled by Roger Williams. 
He fled from the Massachusetts colony because he was 
persecuted by the Puritans. 

1638. — Delaware was settled ])y the Swedes. The settle- 
ment was due to the wish of Gustavus Adolphus, king of 
Sweden. It was a free colony for all persecuted Christians. 

1644. — In 1644 New Jersey was settled by emigrants 
from Long Island. 

1682 — Pennsylvania was settled in 1682 by the Quakers, 
led by William Penn. They settled at Philadelphia. 

1733. — The object of the colony in Georgia was that it 
should be a refuge for the poor. The first settlement was 
made at Savannah. Its leading man was James Oglethorpe. 


Jhe Qld Yhirteen. 

The curtain rises on a hundred years, — 

A pageant of the olden time appears. 

Let the historic muse her aid supply, 

To note and name each form that passes by, 

Here come the old original Thirteen I 

Sir Walter ushers in the Virgin Queen ; 

Catliolic Mary follows her, whose land 

Smiles on soft Chesapeake from either strand ; 

Then (leorgia, with the sisters Caroline, — 

One the Pahnetto wears, and one the Pine ; 

Next, she who ascertained the rights of men 

Not by the s»vord but by the word of Penn, — 

The friendly language hers, of '* thee" and " thou ; " 

Then, she whose mother was a thrifty vrouw, — 

Mother herself of princely children now ; 

And, sitting at her feet, the sisters twain, — 

Two smaller links in the Atlantic chain. 

They through those long, dark winters, drear and dire. 

Watched with our Fabius round the biyouac fire ; 

Comes the free mountain maid, in white and green ; 

()j:e guards the Charter Oak with lofty mien ; 

And lo I in the ])lain beauty once she wore, 

The pilgrim mother from the Bay State shore ; 

And last, not least, is Little Rhody seen. 

With face turned lieayenward, steadfast and serene, — 

She on her anchor, Hope, leans, and will eyer lean. 

— Charles Timothy BROQik 

' -^ \\ 






Indian fROUBLES, 

During these hundred j'ears or more from the founding of 
the Plymouth Colony in lfi20 there had been continual 
trouble with the Indians. You remember how kind they 
were to Columbus and to many other of the early discov- 
erers. They were alrio very kind to the eariy colonists ; but 
these white men from time to time had treated the Indiana 
cruelly. They had lied to them and had stolen from them, 
until, at last, the Indians had come to hats the white men. 
They began to understand that if they did not want their 
beautiful forest homes taken from them forever by these 
" pale faces," as they called the white men, they must fight. 

And fight they did ; not bravely drawn up, however, in 
battle array like soldiers. The Indians knew nothing of 
that sort of fighting. Their only way was to fight with 
bows and arrows from behind trees; or bettor still, they 
liked to burst in upon some quiet family, murder them all, 




and then burn the house, yelling and flourishing the toma- 
hawks over their heads as they danced around the flames. 

Indian ^torie^. 

The Puritans, you will remember, landed at Plymouth 
one cold December day. They set at once to work, felling 
the trees and clearing the places for their homes. All about 
them were endless forests, and, for all they knew, behind 
every tree there might lurk a savage foe ready to pounce 
upon them. 

A few Indians had been seen on the top of the hill, when 
they first landed, but they had fled at the sight of the white 
men, and were not seen again for some time. Glad indeed 
were they that they did not again appear until they got 
their log cabins built, in which their wives and children 
might be safe from the arrows of these red men. 


Weeks passed by ; at last, one morning in March, when 
the Puritans were holding a town meeting, in stalked a 
solitary Indian. The Puritans were not overjoyed to see 
him you may be sure. 


They waited for him to speak . Solemnly he looked about 
upon them all, and then cried, " Welcome Englishmen ! 
Welcome Enijlishmcn ! " 

These were indeed welcome words ; for a minute before 
the white men had stood breathless, wonderinir whether this 
stranger was about to declare peace or war upon them. 

Samoset, for that was the name of this visitor, was a tall, 
straight man, with long black hair, and was arrayed in 
feathers and furs, and colored with bright paints, as was the 
custom of thes(» savaires. 

Samoset was so deliijhted with the manner in which the 
white men received him, that he speedily declared his in- 
tention of staying with them all night. The white men did 
not relish that ; but not daring to displease him, they made 
him comfortable for the night in one of the cabins, and kept 
watch over him until morning. At sunrise he was ready 
to return to his home, and the Puritans gladly bade him 

^amo^et'3 ^ECOND YlglT. 

I am afraid Samoset hadn't very many ideas of what we 
call eticjuette. He did not wait for the Puritans to return 
his call, but appeared again the very next day, brir^ging 
with him five other Indians. 


The Puritans wei-e annoyed with this second visit ; how- 
ever, they g:ivc them nil food and drink, after which tlie six 
Indians diinced and sang in a fashion peculiar to themselves. 

At night the tive Indians went away, but Sanioset liad 
made up his mind to ritay longer with his new friends. 

A few days later, seeing tliat he had no idea of g()iiig 
home, the Puritans sent him to Hnd Massasoit, wlio, as 
Samoset had told them, was the chief of the Indian ti'ihea 
in that ncighhorhood. 


Massasoit, the chief, came, terrible tu 
look at, in his feathers and paint. Ik 
sat down with John (larver, the Gov- 
ernor of this little colony, smoked thi 
pipe of peace with him and i)romised 
befriend the colony as long as lie 
should live. 

This tieaty he always kept, and, 
as he was a very powerful chief, 
the Puritans were safe from Indian 
attack as long as ho lived. It was 
after his death that their real trouble 
with Indians began. 


Jhe ^nake-^kin. 

South of the Plymouth Colony there lived a tribe of 
Indians who hated Massasoit's tribe. They also hated while 
men ; therefore you may know that, when they learned that 
Massasoit was ])roteeting these Puritans, they were doubly 
angry. For a long time they annoyed the colonists in little 
ways, Imt there had })een no real trouble. 

At last, one day there marched into the village a huge 
Indian, covered with his war paint, and carrying in his 
hand a long snake-skin. 

This skin he })resented to William Bradford, who was now 
Governor of the colony, telling him that in the snake-skin 
was a bundle of arrows. 

'^ And what does that mean?" inquired Bradford. 

" War, war, war I " yelled the messenger. 

" Very well," said Bradford calmly; "you may take this 
back to your chief." And as he spoke, he emptied the skin 
of its arrows, and filled it full of shot and gunpowder. 
"This means," said Bradford, "that if your chief comes to 
us with arrows, we will come to him with gunpowder and 
shot." The messenger understood, and snatching the skin, 
he ran out of the village to his home. There was no more 
trouble with that tribe of Indians. 


jVlAggAgOITg |LLNEgg. 

One day word came to the Puritans that Massasoit was 
dying, and that he wished to see the white men once more. 

Quickly one of the Puritans, who chanced to know some- 
thing a])out medicine, hastened to Massasoit's home. He 
found the tent in which Massasoit hiy so full of people that 
the sick man could hardly breathe. These Indians, both 
men and women, were howling and dancing around him, 
trying, so they said, to drive away the bad spirits which 
were giving him pain. This was a cuvstom of theirs 
when an Indian was ill. If the sick man recovered, they 
believed it was because their noises had scared away the 
evil spirits ; if he did not recover, it was because they had 
not made a noise great enough. 

When the Puritan arrived, he set to work to do all he 
could to relieve the poor chief, who was suffering from high 

In two or three days Massasoit was quite well again. The 
Indians looked upon the cure as a miracle, and families 
came from miles and miles around to see the wonderful 
"medicine man." No one was more glad of Massasoit's 
recovery than the white man hhnself ; for all knew that if 
Massasoit died the tribes of Indians on all sides would at 
once rush upon the white settlements, burn the houses, 
scalp the men, and carry away the women and children as 



In the year 1036, there was not a single settlement on 
Long Island, and only a very few along the whole Con- 
necticut shore. All the country round a})()ut was owned by 
a tierce tribe of Indians — the Pequots. 

At first, these Pecjuots had been very friendly with the 
white })e()ple ; but now there began to be signs of hostility. 
A whole crew of white men, who had gone up the Connecti- 
cut to trade with these tribes, had never been heard from : 
and although the Indians declared they knew nothing what- 
ever of their fate, there was little doubt in the minds of the 
colonists that they had been killed or made captives by 
these same Pequots. 

But for all this, there was one man, Cai)tain Oldham, 
who, for the sake of trading with the Indians, still persisted 
in going into their midst. Many, many times he did this, 
and as no harm came to him, he grew very bold. But at 
last he, too, fell into the hands of these merciless Pequots. 

He had sailed around to Block Island, with only one boy 
and two friendly Indians in his vessel. 

Down came the Pequots, eager to trade with Captain 
Oldham, bringing great loads of beaver skins to chano-e for 
the bright beads and feathers which so delio-hted their 
foolish eyes. 


But this time, when they saw only the boy and the two 
Indians on board, they fell upon Captain Oldham and cut 
off his head ; then seizing the small crew, they bound them 
hand and foot, and with yells and howls and flourishing of 
tomahawks were preparing to rol) the vessel. 

But just then, a sail was seen in the distance, drawing 
near. The Indians, seeing this, hurried the goods into their 
canoes as fast as possible ; but the wind was blowing a 
stiff gale, and the advancing sloop was soon upon them. 
As soon as she was within reach, her crew fired into the 
midst of the Indians. 

Now, the Indians were terribly afraid of these white men's 
guns, and when the shot came rattling in among them, with 
one great howl they rushed from the deck down into the 

"Now, then," said the skipper, "downupon her! sink her, 
or capsize her, and drown out those Indian rats ! " 

The shock was tremendous. Over the vessel careened, 
rolling the cowardly Indians right and left, all in a heap, 
one over the other, until six of them, yelling with fright, 
rushed up on to the deck and jumped overboard. 

Meantime, Skipper Gallup had drawn his sloop back, and 
was advancing to strike upon the vessel again. This time 
he hung his great anchor over the bows, so that when he 
struck again, its fluke would drive in the side of the vessel. 


Bang went the anchor I Crash went the side of the ves- 
sel ! Up came four more frightened Indians, and with a 
terrible war-whoop over they plunged into the water below. 

Only four now remained, and Captain Gallup and his men 
now boarded the enemy. One frightened Indian came up 
and begged for menjy ; but there lay the headless body of 
Captain Oldham, and Captain Gallup felt that his murderers 
deserved no mercy. They bound him hand and foot and [)ut 
him into the sloop. 

Another followed. Him, too, they l)ound ; but fearing 
that if he were put into the sloop, the two might i)lot some 
harm, they threw him overboard to share the fate of his fel- 
low murderers. There were two now left in the hold, hiding 
in the darkest corners. As the gale was increasing rapidly, 
Skipper Gallup hastily shifted what cargo had not been 
stolen to his own l)oat, and then pulling down her rigging 
and fastening down her hatches, took the unfortunate vessel 
in tow hoping to carry her into port. 

But the storm burst upon them with such fury that he 
cut her loose ; and, as she was never heard from again, it 
was supposed she sank. 

After this the Pequots grew worse than ever in their 
treatment of the white men. Whenever a white man showed 
himself outside the towns, he was sure to find an Indian 
lying in wait. 



At last, all the colonies united and raised a small anay. 
There was a great battle, in which over seven hundred of 
the Peijuots were killed. The few that were left were bO 
weak and so powerless to defend Ihouiselvrs, that soon the 
neighlioring trihes fell upon them and killed them, everyone. 

j<.INq pHiup's W' 


Forty years after the Pequot War, 
many tribes of Indians handed to- 
gether and vowed to each other that 
they would not rest until every white 
man was driven fnmi the country. 
I There were so many Indiana in this 
J league that it Hcenied for a thne as if 
I their threat would indeed he carried out, 
1 FniLif. '^^*' *■'''** attack was made upon the 

people of Swansey. The people had all been gathered to- 
gether in their little church, which you remember was more 
like a fort than a church. As they came out, and were 
walking slowly homeward, suddenly there was heard the 


Indian war-whoop ; and in an instant there burst out from 
the forests troops of Indians armed with guns, arrows, clubs, 
tomahawks — anything with which a deadly blow could be 

After this, the Indians fell upon all the towns and upon 
the farms scattered al)out over the -country. If you ever 
read the history of King Philip's War, you will find it full 
of terri])le stories of the cruelty of these Indians, and of 
stories, sad, sad stories of the poor women and children who 
were cruelly murdered or dragged away to be made slaves of. 

The Indians were continually on the watch. When men 
went out to work, they would be shot down by an unseen 
foe. The women at work in their homes would be shot by 
a ball or an arrow comin^r in throu<i:h the window. 

A story is told of a woman who was makinij cheese in the 
up})er i)art of one of the large garrison-houses. She turned 
back a shutter to let in more liirht, when whiz came a l)all 
before she had hardly turned from the window. The ball 
went through the cheese that the woman held in her hand, 
])ut fortunately did her no injury. 

At another time, one of the men in the garrison-house 
took up his stand just outside the door to watch. A man 
within put a candle in one of the little windows, that it 
might throw a light out into the darkness to help the sentinel 
without. Hardly had he taken his hand from the candle- 
stick, before a Imllet came crashing in through the window 
with such good aim that the light of the candle was put out. 


TIte man outside instantly aimed out into the darkness to 
jubc ^'here he had seen the flash of the Indian's gun, and 
being a good shot the Indian fell. 

In Dorchester at this time lived a Mr. Minot with his two 
little children. One Sunday the family had gone to church, 
leaving the children at home with the servant-maid. All the 
windows and door were made fast, as usual, and then the 
maid went about her work. Soon an Indian appeared and 
tried to make his way in. The brave maid, while the 
Indian was thundering at the door, hid the two children 
and seized the musket. The Indian seeing her fired quickly, 
but she escaped the shot. She returned the shot, but only 
hit him in the shoulder. More enraged, he threw himself 
against the door, and would certainly have fallen upon 
them, had not the girl, knowing there was no time to load 
again, seized a shovelful of hot coals and threw, them 
straight into his savage face. With howls of pain the 
Indian leaped in the air, turned, and rushed away into the 
forest. The next day an Indian, this one no doubt, was 
found dead in these same woods, his face one mass of 



Kinjr Philip'3 right-hand 
iniin in this war was Annawon. 
i lie it was, who, in the midst 
luf the file of battle, could be 
f heard shouting to his inen,"I- 
oo-l!ish ! I-oo-tash ! " uicaning, 
".Stand to it: Stand to it!" 
At laist, King Philip him- 
Iself was killed, "Now," said 
"the colonists, " if we could 
eapture or kill Annawon, we 
should he safe."' 
Fuidiiiji that Annawon luid made his camp in a swamp 
near by, (!a]ihiin ('hurcli, one of the Ina vest of the colonists, 
s<'t out to tiiid ii. Moon they came in sight of it — down in 
a deep recess among the iiills. There lay Annawon him- 
self, slretdicd out before his tent half asleep. Slowly and 
(juictly they clinibcd down, and before Annawon ever knew 
of their presence Ciii)tain ('imrcli ste|»j>ed across the chiePs 
budy and took him prisoner. 

Meantime, the fulhiwers of Captain Church went to the 
<iflier Indians lying about before their camp-tires, and told 
them that their chief was taken, that there were hundreds of 
white men just outside the camp, and that their lives should 
he spared, if they would surrender at once. 



Cuptain t'Inirch, exhausted with liis lung march, now lay 
down closo to Aniiiiwon and slejit, throwing his foot over 
Annawon, so thsit the least movement would awaken Iiiiu. 
for two hours the captain slept. When he woke, he found 
Annawon lying with eyes wide open staring at him. At 
last, Annawon arose and stalked ofi'int** the forest. As he 
liad surrendered liis arms, Captain Church allowed liim to 
go, wondering what he would do next. 

Soon he returned, hringiug a war-helt, which had 
belonged to the Indian cliief. King I'hilij). 

Laying it at Captain t'liurdi's fe<'t, hi; said, "(ircat 
Captain, you killed King I'liilij) — you caiitureme — now the 
war is ended — this holt hclong to you," 





Twas a Saturday night, midwinter, 

And the snow with its sheeted pall 
Had covered the stubbled clearings 

That girdled the rude built '* Hall ; 
But high in the deep-mouthed chimney, 

'Mid laughter and shout and din, 
The children were piling yule-logs 

To welcome the Christmas in. 



" Ah, so ! We'll be glad to-morrow, 

The mother half musing said. 
As she looked at the eager workers. 

And laid on a sunny head 
A touch as of benediction, — 

" For heaven is just as near 
The father at far Patuxent 

As if he were with us here. 

" So choose ye the pine and holly, 
And shake from their boughs the snow ; 

We'll garlard the rough-hewn rafters 
As they garlanded long ago — 

Or ever Sir George went sailing 
Away o'er the wild sea foam,— 


In my beautiful English Sussex, 
The happy old walls at home." 

She sighed ; as she paused, a whisper 

Set quickly all eyes astrain ; 
' ' See ! see ! " — and tlie boy's hand pointed 

'' There's a face at the window-pane 1 *' 
One instant a ghastly terror 

Shot sudden her features o'er. 
And next, she rose, un blenching, 

And opened the fast barred door. 

" Who be ye that seek admission? 

Who conieth for food and rest ? 
This night is the night above others 

To shelter a straying guest." 
Deep out of the snowy silence 

A gutteral answer broke ; 
'^ I come from the great Three Rivers, 

I am chief of the Roanoke." 

Straight in through the frightened children. 

Unshrinking the red man strode. 
And loosed on the blazing hearthstone. 

From his slioulder a light borne load, 
And out of the pile of deer skins, 

With a look as serene and mild 
As if it had been his cradle. 

Stepped softly a four-year child ; 


As he chafed at the fire his fingers 

Close pressed to the brawny knee> 
The gaze that the silent savage 

Bent on him was strange to see. 
And then with a voice whose yearning, 

The father could scarcely stem 
He said, to the children pointing 

** I want him to be like them ! 

They weep for the boy in the wigwam 5 

I bring him, a moon of days. 
To learn of the speaking paper ; 

To hear of the wiser ways 
Of the people beyond the water ; 

To break with the plough the sod ; 
To be kind to papoose and woman, 

To pray to the white man's God.*' 

** I give thee my hand ! " and the lady 

Pressed forward with sudden cheer ; 
** Thou shalt eat of my English pudding, 

And drink of my Christmas beer. 
My darlings, this night, remember, 

All strangers are kith and kin. 
This night when the dear Lord's mother. 

Could find no room at the inn." 

Next mom from the colony belfry 
Pealed gayly the Sunday chime, 


And meiTily forth the people I 

Flocked, keeping Christmas time ; ' 

And the lady, with bright-eyed children 
Behind her with lips a-smile, 

And the chief in skins and wnmpum 
Came walking the narrow aisle. 

Forthwith from the congregation 

Broke fiercely a sullen cry, 
" Out ! out ! with the crafty redskin ! 

Have at him ! a spy ! a spy ! " 
And quickly from belts leaped daggers, 

And swords from their sheaths flashed bare. 
And men from their seats defiant 

Sprang ready to slay him there. 

But facing the crowd with courage 

As calm as a night of yore, 
Step[)ed bravely the fair-browed woman 

The thrust of the steel before. 
And spake with a queenly gesture. 

Her hand on the chief's brown breast ; 
" Ye dare not impeach my lionor, 

Ye dare not insult my guest ! " 

They droi)ped, at her word, their weapons^ 

Half -shamed as the lady smiled, 
And told them the red man's story, 

And showed them the red man's child : 
And pledged them her broad plantations, 

That never would such betray 
The trust that a Christian woman 

Had shown on a Christmas Day. 

hc'anl of the 

oust of Mlissu- 

li.lo hill, 


I wonder how uiiiny of you have evr 
([njiiiit old town of Marbiclicud, on the c( 
chuaetts ? 

It is tho funniest little ..Id town, liuilt . 
down to the water's edge. 

Aa you come up into tho little harhor and land iit the 
wharf, you will, at first, think it is an extremely dirty, 
ill-ciired for settlement; hut you must reniemhcr, 
that this is a fishing town, and it is at this wharf 
that the fishermen keep nil their hoxes, and cages, a,nd 
hoats, and as fishenncn are not suj)posed to he very good 
house-keepers, you must excuse them if their part of the 
town is not quite as orderly as it might he. 


But keep on up into the town. Such a quaint old town ! 
You will feel as if, somehow, you had been asleep and had 
suddenly awoke to find yourself in the days of long, long 
ago. The houses are so old-fashioned I such strange old 
shutters ! such big heavy doors with their great brass 
knockers! And then the way the houses are set! — one 
away out in the street, another way back from the street, 
one facing the east, another facing the west, another facing 
the north, and still another the south. At first you will 
wonder why these houses were not built along the street 
line in order, as houses in most towns are ; but if you stop 
to think a minute, you will remember that these houses 
were built in the very early times, before the streets were 
laid out at all ; and as the houses were few and far apart, 
each man built his just where he pleased, not realizing then 
that sometime Marblehead would come to be a thickly 
settled town. 

Marblehead in these days had many troubles with the 
Indians. There stands now high up on the hillside a little 
old church, under which, so the natives will tell you, the 
early settlers used to bury their dead, so that the Indians 
would not know that any of their numbers had died; 
neither would they be able to steal the bodies away. 

One beautiful morning in May, all the men and women 
and children of Marblehead were down at the wharf; for 
on this day many of the husbands and sons and "big 


brothers" were to sail far away for a long fishing season. 
The water was sparkling in the bright, warm siin, the little 
fishing fleet lay tossing lightly to and fro on the waves in 
the quiet bay. 

At last, all was in readiness; the sails were hoisted, the 
little boats turned seaward, and away they sped, amidst the 
cheerinor and wavinor of the women and children left on shore. 
For a long time these brave women watched the little fleet 
sailing away into the distance. They were gone at last — 
only here and there little specks on the horizon to mark the 
brave little fishing fleet. 

Then the women and children went back up into the town 
— many, I fear, with dim eyes and heavy hearts; for the 
fisherman's life is always one of peril ; and these women 
knew only too well that whenever the little boats faded 
from their sight, it might be forever. 

Hardly had two weeks passed by, when, one Sunday 
morning as the people were coming out from the little church, 
one woman spied a little vessel making in for the harbor. 

" See I see ! " she cried ; " a sail ! a sail ! " 

" Why, 'tis one of ours, I do ])elieve." 

" Tis the William and Mary ! by the cut of her jib, I 
know 'tis mv ^^oodman's boat." 

A terrible fear came into their hearts ; they knew only 
too well that nothin<i^ but some disaster would brinor back 
one of the little craft alone. 


" God help us ! what harm can have come to the fishing 
fleet ! " '' To the pier ! to the pier ! " they cried. 

Away they hasten, their faces full of fear. O, how slowly 
the vessel seems to come. Will it never come within hail ! 

" Skipper, ahoy ! what news do ye brinii: ? tell us at once ! " 
cried the anxious women almost before the skipper was 
within the little bay. 

" God have mercy on you all," said the skipper, as he 
stepped from his boat upon the little pier, from which so 
short a time a<^o he had sailed away with his brother fishers, 
so full of hope and life. 

"Our fleet lay anchored in a sheltered cove for the night. 
It seemed so quiet there, no signs of Indians or white men 
alonir the coast, that we all stowed ourselves in for a night's 
rest. Xo thouii^ht had we of the hidden foe. When down 
came the heathen, five hundred strong, and boarded our 
crafts ere we had a thought of danger. With yells and 
howls, with tomahawks and clubs, they slew our men, 
sparing only enough to help them sail the boats. We, my 
mates here and I, were among the prisoners. We watched 
our chances ; seizing the foe, we pitched four of them into 
the sea, crowded on full sail, and got out of their reach. 
Two of them we have fast bound here in the hold. O, God 
help us all ! and" — 

" Bring 'em out ! bring 'em out ! " cried the women on 
shore. "Bring 'em out, the murdering wretches I " 

"Kill them! kill them 1 they killed our good men and 


our brave sons! kill them! kill tliem I " cried one poor 
woman crazed with grief. 

Then the women of Mtirbleheiul fell upon the two Indijins, 
lashed them, and drafrged them and stoned them till the 
breath of life had gone from tb(m both. 

Doea it seem strange to you that the^o women could so 
brutally murder these wretched Indians? It does seem 
rather severe, but when you think how iin'rry they were, 
and justly, too; how tcrnblc was the de-iohitioii brought 
into their quiet homes, I think your sympathies will be 
rather with the women than with the cruel Indians after all. 


Just one more Tndiun wtory, ami we will go biuik to the 
doings of the coIonistH. 

On the Merriniac nvcr, near iravcrhill, lived Farmer 
Dustin and his family. As you read in another story, the 
Tndians were- very sly and continually on the watch. 
Nothing seemed to delight them more than to pounce down 
upon helpless women and children in the fann-houses, kill 
them, set lire to the house, and run away before the men at 
work in the fields had any idea of what had happened. 

One day, as Mr. Dustin was at work in his field, he saw 
smoke arising fnnn the village. "Indian* ! Indians !"cried 
he, hurrying to his home. There he found his faithful 



servant holding the Indians at bay at the very door of the 
house. Bidding the children ''run ahead," he slowly backed 
away, keeping the Indians back with his gun, until the little 
ones were beyond their reach. Poor Mrs. Dustin, who was 
ill and in her bed, was dragged forth, and both she and her 
l)rave servant were made to march through the forests to 
an island far up the Merrimac. 

Here Mrs. Dustin found a little white boy, who had been 
taken prisoner some time before. Mrs. Dustin w^as de- 
termined to escape. Having learned how to strike a blow 
that would cause instant death, and also having learned how 
to scalp, Mrs. Dustin and her servant and the little boy 
planned an attack upon their Indian captors. 

One night the Indians had had a grand "pow-wow," and 
had fallen into a heavy drunken sleep. " Now's our time," 
whispered ]\Irs. Dustin; and, awakening the boy, they all 
three fell upon the sleeping Indians, killed them, scalped 
them, and hurried down to the river-side, where a canoe 
was in waiting to carry them down the river. 

Imagine the joy of the husband and the little children 
when the brave mother and servant found their way back 
to their old home. Great was the rejoicing in the village ; 
for they had been mourned as dead. 


FROM 1754 to 1763 there was a bitter war carried on 
between the French, aided by the Indians on one side, 
and the English, aided by her colonies on the other We 
shall pass very quickly over this war, which, though very 
impoilant, does not chance to have so very many stories for 
little folks in it. 

One of the first attacks in this war was made on the French 
settlement in Acadia. I wish you were old enough to read 
the beautiful story of Evangeline as it is told by our poet 
Longfellow. By and bv I hope you will read it, and will 
learn to love this beautiful Evangeline, who was so cruelly 
driven from her home in Acadia. 


In the beautiful Basin of the Minas was a quiet little 
French village. The people of this village were peaceful, 



home loving families, and took no part in the war on either 
side. The English, however, fearing that they might by and 
by be persuaded to join the French forces, made up their 
rninds to break up this village and scatter the people. This 
was a cruel, cruel deed, and one for which there is no excuse. 

One ])ri2:lit mornin<j: the En<>Iish officers came into the 
vilhige and demanded that the ))eo))le be gathered in the 
churches to hear a messa<2:e which the Eniiflish ])rou2:ht to 

Tlie people all left their work and flocked to the churches. 
The farmer left his harvest field, the blacksmith his anvil, 
the wife and maiden their s})inning-wheels. 

No sooner were they within the churches than they were 
surrounded ])y these cowardly red-coated British soldiers, 
hustled down to the water-side, and crowded on board the 
British shi[)S like so many herds of sheep. O, it was a 
mean, cowardly deed! Families were torn apart; wives 
lost their husbands ; mothers lost their little ones ; brothers 
and sisters, lovers and maidens, were doomed never to meet 
each other again. Piteous were the cries of these poor 
peoi)le, but the hard-hearted soldiers only sneered at their 

As they sailed out from the harbor, they saw^ the soft 
Se))tember sky all one terrible glare of flame. Then they 
knew that their last ho})e was gone ; their beautiful homes 
were burned. This the cruel soldiers had done lest the poor 


Acadians might try to wander ])ack to tlioir old home in 
this ])eautiful Basin of the Minas. 

When these Britisli vessels had reached the New England 
shores^ the unhappy people were dropped here and there, 
that there might be no possibility of their ])anding together 
again. Very few of them ever met their dear ones again, 
and many died of homesickness and heart-break. 


I suppose every child in Anuu-ica knows about (jeorge 
Washington. Indeed, I hardly dare otter you a story about 
this man, lest you say, ^U) don't bother ! we know all about 
him." And very likely you do; but let's read this one 
story together. 

When this war broke out, Georirci Washin<jton was a 
young man, only about as old as those big boys that you see 
coming now and then from their colleges to spend their 
vacations at home. 

_George Washington, you remember, lived in Virginia. 
The Governor of Virginia at that time was Governor 



It became very necessary to get a message to the com- 
mander of the French forts on the Ohio river; and, as 
Washington had already made a name for himi^elf being a 
brave, honest, trustworthy lad. Governor Dinwiddie chose 
him to go on this impoi-tant journey with the message. 

It W119 a tenihle journey, and one that was full of diingcr. 
Very Hkelj Washington would have been quite willing to 
be excused from the tiisk ; butas it must be done, jind some- 
body must do it, he bravely and willingly ticcepted the trust. 

It was in the winter time ; and his journey lay over 
mountains, through forests, and across rivers, where very 
likely, no white man had over been before. 


One night he and his companion worked till daylight, 
makinor a rude raft with which to cross a narrow river too 
deep to ford, expecting every minute an attack from the 
savages of the forest. 

Lossing, in his "Life of Washington," gives the follow- 
ing account of this journey . 

"I was unwilling," writes the guide, "that he should 
undertake such a march ; but, as he insisted on it, we set 
out with our packs, like Indians, and travelled eighteen 
miles. That night we lodged at an Indian cabin, and the 
major was much fatigued. It was very cold ; all the small 
streams were frozen, so that we could hardly get water to 
drink." At two o'clock the next morning they were again 
on foot, and pressed forward until they struck the south- 
east branch of Beaver Creek, at a place called Murdering- 
town, the scene, probably, of some Indian massacre. 

"Here we met with an Indian, whom I thought I had 
seen when on our journey up to the French fort. This 
fellow called me by my Indian name, and pretended to be 
glad to sec me. He asked us several questions, as, how 
came we to travel on foot, where we parted from our 
horses, and when they would l)e there. Major AVashington 
insisted upon travelling on the nearest way to the forks of 
the Alleghany. We asked the Indian if he could go with 
us, and show us the nearest way. He seemed very glad, 
and ready to do so ; upon which we set out, and he took 
the majoT's pack. 


•* We travelled quite briskly for eight or ten miles, when 
the major's feet grew very sore, and he very weary, and 
the Indian steered too much northeastwardly. The major 
desired to encamp, upon which the Indian asked to carry 
his gun ; but he refused that. Then the Indian grew churl- 
ish, and pressed us to keep on, telling us there were 
Ottowa Indians in these woods, and that they would scalp 
us if we lay out ; but to go to his cabin and we should be 

" I thought very ill of the fellow, but did not care to let 
the major know I mistrusted him. But he soon mistrusted 
him as much as I. The Indian said he could hear a gun 
from his cabin, and steered us more northwardly. We 
grew uneasy, and then he said two whoops might be heard 
from his cabin. We went two miles farther. Then the 
major said he would stay at the next Avater, and we desired 
the Indian to stop there ; but before Ave came to water we 
came to a clear meadow. 

**It was very light. Snow was on the ground. The 
Indian made a stop, and turned about. The major saw 
him point his gun toward us and fire. Said the major, 
'Are you shot?* *No,' said I ; upon which the Indian ran 
forward to a big standing white oak, and began loading his 
gun, but we were soon with him. I would have killed him, 
but the major would not suffer me. AVe let him charge his 
gun. We found he put in a ball ; and then we took care of 


him. Either the Major or I always stood by the guns. 
We made him make a fire for us by a little run, as if we 
intended to sleep there. 

"I said to the major, 'As you will not have him killed, 
Ave must get him away, and then we must travel all night ; ' 
upon which I said to the Indian, ' I suppose you were lost, 
and fired your gun.' He said he knew the way to his 
cabin, and it was but a little way. 'Well,' said I, 'do 
you go home, and as we are much tired, we will follow 
your track in the morning.' He was ghid to get away. I 
followed him and listened until he was fairly out of the 
way, and then we went about half a mile, when we made a 
fire, set our compass, and fixed our course and travelled all 
niffht. In the morninof we were on the head of Pinev 
Creek." There is little reason to doubt that it was the 
intention of the savage to kill one or both of them. 

The fort on the Ohio was at last reached. Washington 
delivered his message to the commander there, who sent 
back a very insolent reply to Governor Dinwiddie. 

The journey back was as hard and as dangerous as the 
journey to the fort had been. It was accomplished, how- 
ever, and the French commander's reply delivered to 

I will not try to tell you what these messages had been 
about, but the one that Washington brought back from the 
fort was such that the people of Virginia knew that the 


French were determined to fight, iind that war would surely 

Quickly the Governor of Virginia prepared for war, and, 
sending word to the other colonies, Iiiule them l>c ready too. 
All the colonies hrnvely nuidc ready to meet the foe. Even 
Georgia, settled only t\Yenty years l>efiire, was ready to join 
hands with Virginia and Mas*ldlU'^■1t^<, the oldest coloniea 
of all to give what help she could. 


England i-cnt over a large army of red- 
coats, with General Braddockat the head. 
Now, General Braddock felt himself to be 
a great man. Indeed, he had made up his 
mind that, as soon as he and his army 
arrived, the whole war would be as good 
as over. He little knew what sort of 
people these Indians were with whom he 
was going to fight. He supposed that, as 
soon as they caught sight of the great I'ed-coated soldier 


with him at their head, they would be so overcome by fright 
that they would give up at once. "Pooh ! " said he, " the 
idea of Indians daring to fight with me ! " 

General Braddock's contempt for the colonists was as 
great as his contempt for the Indians. How he sneered 
when the sturdy colonists took their places among the red- 
coats as he drew up his forces in battle array ! 

It is a wonder he didn't tell them to go to their homes, 
while ho started off through the forests with his troops alone. 

Washington, who was at the head of the Virginia militia, . 
talked long and earnestly with Braddock, trying to show 
him how impossible it would be to attempt to fight these 
Indians, as he would fight a battle where the armies on both 
sides were trained soldiers. 

He told him the Indian way of fighting ; how they never 
came out in battle array; how they always hid behind trees, 
in bushes, and in swamps. 

But Braddock only sneered. " Do you suppose a General 
in the King's army needs advice from a boy like you?" 
thought he. And I shouldn't be at all surprised if he said 
it too. 

.Now, Washington and his Virginia troops w^ere used to 
the ways of the Indians, and when they saw that Braddock 
was determin(»d to set out upon the journey to meet the 
Indians in the English fashion, they knew only too well 
what the result would be Nevertheless they made no 
complaint, but were ready to start at Braddock's command. 


Jhe a 


In the first place, there were the Virginia mountains to be 
climbed, and the rivers to be forded. The English soldiers 
used only to their level country, began to give out before 
the journey was half accomplished. 

Still, Braddock had not sense enough to see that it would 
be well to heed the advice of Washington and the other 
colonists. "Perhaps the Indians can frighten such soldiers 
as you are," said he, sneering at the colonists, "but they 
cannot frighten English soldiers." 

So they were marching on, in full battle array, drums 
beating, and colors flying. 

Braddock's head was high in the air, and he was very 
likely expecting to see the Indians advancing in the same 

Suddenly, as his army was ascending a little slope with 
deep ravines and thick underbrush on either side, they were 
greeted with the terrible war-whoop of the Indians. Arrows 
l>egan to fly in every direction, men were falling dead about 
him ; still no enemy was to be seen. 

"Where are they?" weakly asked the boasting General. 

The terrible war-whoop resounded on every side. Well 
might the General ask, "AVhere are they?" They seemed 
to be everywhere. 


The British regulars huddled together, and frightened, 
fired right and left at trees and at rocks. 

The Virginia troops alone, with Washington at their head, 
sprang into the forests and into the bushes and met the 
Indians on their own ground. Washington seemed every- 
where present. The Indians singled him out as the especial 
object for their shot. Four balls passed through his coat ; 
two horses were shot dead beneath him. Braddock was 
mortally wounded and was borne from the field. Then, 
when the Virginia troops were nearly all killed, the British 
soldiers turned and fled disgracefully. 

Washington and his few men, seeing that they were flee- 
ing, turned again upon the Indians, and, by keeping them 
busy returning his fire, prevented them from pursuing the 
frightened British regulars. 

This battle was a terri])le one to the British and the colo- 
nists. Nearly all of Washington's troops were killed and a 
great many of the English; the French'and Indians on the 
other side lost very few. 

After this the British were more willing to take the advice 
of the colonists, who were so much more familiar with the 
ways of the Indians. 



In this war it was important that Quebec be taken from 
the French. 

To give you some idea of how Quebec was situated, and 
how diflScult it was to besiege it, perhaps nothing can help 
you more than the story of how the city came to be named 

Away back in those early times, when the French were 
sailing down the St. Lawrence, and taking possession of 
what they saw, in the name of France, by a turn in the 
river, they came suddenly into view of a great sharp over- 
hanging cliff. ''Quel bee! ^^ cried one of the sailors, 
meaning " What a beak ! " 

Coming nearer, the leader saw that the top of this cliff 
would make a line site for a trading-post. It would be 
difficult for the enemy to attack, and it would be an excel- 
lent watch tower from which to watch vessels passing on the 

Accordingly the cliff was chosen for the trading-post and 
remembering the sailor's cry, the explorer gave it the name 
Quebec. When it afterwards became a city, you can see 
that it was indeed a watch-tower. If an enemy's vessel was 
seen approaching, the people were warned long before it 
reached them, and they meantime had plenty of opportunity 
to prepare for defence. 


" That city must be taken ! " said the English officers. 

'' We can do nothing with the river with that city 
scowling down upon us, ready to attack our vessels as 
soon as they pass within the shadow of that great beak." 

And so it came about that General Wolfe was sent to 
attack this city of Quebec. Landing at night two miles 
above the city, they climbed the steep banks of the river, and 
stood, at daybreak, on the plains of Abraham. 

Montcalm, who held the city, was surprised indeed to see 
the Englii.h upon the plain in full battle array. But Mont- 
calm was a brave soldier ; and though he knew that in Wolfe 
he had a "noble foe," he did not shrink from the encoun- 
ter, which seemed likely from the beginning to be disastrous 
to the French. 

Tow^ards ten o'clock the French advanced to the attack. 
Two cannons, which, with very great labor the English had 
dragged up the path from the landing place, at once opened 
fire upon the French. 

The advance was badly conducted. The French soldiers 
marched steadily on, but the Canadians, firing as they ad- 
vanced, threw themselves on the ground to reload, and this 
broke the order of the line. The English advanced some 
little distance to meet their foes, and then halted. 

Not a shot was fired until the French were within forty 
paces, and then, at the word of command, a volley of mus- 
ketry crashed out along the whole length of the line. So 



regularly was the volley given, that as the French officers 
afterwards said, it sounded like a single cannon-shot. 
Another volley followed, then another and another; and 
when the smoke cleared away there lay the dead and 
wounded on every side. 

All order had been lost under the terrible fire. In three 
minutes the line of advancing soldiers was broken up into a 
disorderly shouting mol). Then Wolfe gave the order to 
charge, and the British cheer mingled with the wild yell 
of the IIi<>:hlanders rose loud and tierce. The Enoflish resri- 
ments advanced with levelled bayonets ; the Highlanders 
drew their broadswords and rushed headlong: forward. 

Their fire was heaviest on the British right, where AVolfe 
himself led the charge. A shot shattered his wrist. He 
wraj)ped his handkerchief around it and kept on. Another 
shot struck him, but he still advanced. When a third 
pierced his breast, he staggered and sat down. Two or 
three oflScers and men carried him to the rear, and then 
laid him down and asked if they would send for a surgeon. 

"There is no need," he said, "It is all over with me." 
A moment later one of those standing by him cried out : 

"They run, see how they run ! " 

"Who run?" Wolfe asked. 

"The enemy, sir; they give way everywhere." 

"Go, one of you, to Colonel Burton," Wolfe said, "tell 
him to march Webb's regiment down to the Charles River 


to cut of their rctresit from the bridge;" then, turning on 
his side, he said : 

. "Now, God l)c praised, I die in peace!" and a few 
minutes later be died. 

At ahnost the same moment Montcahii, mortally wounded, 
aaid to his surgeon, " ILive I much longer to live?" 

"No," answered the surgeon; "only a few moments, I 

"So much the better," answered Montcalm. " I shall not 
live to sec the surrender of Quebec." 

This French and Indian War wa.>* carried on for about 
live years. There were man}' terrible battles, and thousands 
and thousands of brave men weiv, killed on both sides. At 
last the British and the colonists won, peace was made, and 


England now owned all the land from the Arctic Ocean to 
the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi > 

How THE j^lOLONIE? -(^RENY •{JjsriTED. 

The close of this French and Indian War brings us close 
upon a period which is perhaps the most important in the 
whole history of our country. 

We are coming upon that great war known as the Revo- 
lutionary War. Revolution, you know, means a turning 
over, a clianging about ; and you will think before you get 
throuo:h that it was indeed a turnin«: over and a chanorinsr 

Before we start upon that great war, let us look over this 
sountry and see what sort of people and conditions we are 
going to deal with. 

During tiiis French and Indian War, the people of the 
thirteen colonies had miconsciously been getting ready for the 
Revolution which was so near at hand. 

Before this war, you know there had been a great deal of 
petty jealousy between the different colonies. Each bad 


been jealous of the other's religion and customs. The 
Swedes didn't care to have much to do with the Dutch, and 
the Dutch were rather jealous of the Swedes ; the Puritans 
and the Quakers had not quite forgotten the days of perse- 
cution ; the Episcopalians of Virginia, the wealthy planters 
with their slaves, looked down upon the northern colonists 
as very common sort of people. 

But during this French and Indian War all the colonies 
had fought side by side against a common foe, the Indians and 
French. They had grown more used to each other's ways ; 
the Virginia Episcopalians had found that the Massachusetts 
Puritans were, after all, quite as brave and noble as they 
themselves were ; while on the other side these rigid Puritans 
had found that the Virginians were true and honest-hearted, 
and could make just as sturdy soldiers as were to be found 
in any colony. All these bitter feelings were gradually 
softened down, and at the end of the war many a Puritan, 
Catholic and Episcopalian had made warm frcndships with 
one another, which no doubt lasted as long as they lived. 

Other things, too, had been working to bring them to- 
gether. The British soldiers had, throughout the war, 
sneered at the colonists, and had plainly shown them that 
England considered them as a very inferior sort of people. 

Their wishes and their advice had been tiirust aside in 
contempt, and their l)est officers had often been pushed out 
to make room for some young Englishman who knew no 
more about the work before him than a child. 


All these and many other influences had been at work to 
bring about in the colonists a more united brotherly feeling ; 
while, at the same time, there had been creeping into their 
hearts and heads a feeling of rebellion against the injustice 
of England, and a sense of strength in themselves, which 
by and by, as we shall soon see, broke out in that war 
between England and America known as the Revolution. 

Charter Qak. 

Connecticut colonists were not one whit behind thft 
others in their willingness to defy the English tyranny. 

The King had given to them a very liberal charter, and 
under this they were living happily, with the colony every- 
where in a prospering condition. From the v6ry first tho 
Connecticut peo})le had had the name of being peaceful, 
industrious peoi)lc. Indeed, the State is often spoken of 
now as "The Land of Steady Habits." 

Now that the colonies had become so important, Edmund 
Andros, an Englishman, was sent over to take possession 
and establish himself as a sort of governor-in-gene^'al ovei 
New England. 



Sir Edmund, however, like many 

luiothcr English nobleman at that time, 

knew very little of the real character 

nf the colonists. I wonder if he 

really thought these people would 

meekly {rive up their chartci-s 

and iiccept him as their ruler. 

When he came to Connecticut 

and demanded the surrender of 

its charter, a hot discussion 

arose. Andros was insolent ; the 

colonists were furious. 

The charter waa l)iou"ht in and 

laid upon the tabic. 

"Now," thought Au<lr< 
seize it." And i 

I will have it if I have to 
; forward, he had nearly put his 
hand upon it, wlieu suddenly, at a signal, the candles all 
wore extinguished, and the r(K)m was as " dark as a pocket." 

"Lights ! lights !" roared Andros. 

"A terrible draft of air tliat must have been, sir, to blow 
out all those candles," said one colonist slyly. 

Soon the candles were relighted ; but meantime the charter 
had disappeared. 

" Where can it have gone ? " cried all the people, looking 
very innocent and surprised. 

"Must have blown away ! " said one. 


•* Witches 1 ** said another. 

" Spirits ! " said another. 

Andros knew well enough that the Charter was safe in the 
keeping of these innocent looking colonists, and that they 
were rejoicing inwardly at the success of their scheme. 
But there was nothing to be done, no one could be accused, 
and Andros was glad enough to go away. 

The chai-tcrhad been hidden in a hollow tree, from which 
it came out, when Andros had gone, looking as fine as ever. 

''Little Rhody," too, has always done her part bravely in 
all our country's history. 

AVhen Sir Edmund Andros came to this colony to demand 
its charter, he was received most graciously by the gentle- 
manly governor, and was invited to his house to dine. 

"After dinner," said the Governor, ''we will go to the 
jibrary and (H)nsult with other of our colonial oflScers re- 
garding this charter. We shall be vovy sorry to give it up, 
Sir Edmund Andros; still I doubt not we shall come to 
Bome satisfactory agreement." 

Pig-headed Sir Ednmnd was, no doubt, delighted with hit 
courteous recei)tion, and was stupid enough to think that 
here at last he should have no trouble. 


After dinner the officers came, tind all gathered in the 

Going to his desk, Governor Clark opened a secret 
drawer, and lo ! it was empty. 

"Friends," said Governor (lark, "I always keep the charter 
here. Where it is I do not know." Then calling the ser- 
vants, a great search began ; but no charter was found. 

Again Andros was foiled. I wonder if, although he was 
so politely entertained during his visit, his stupid head 
didn't suspect that it was but another joke at his expense. 

At any rate, the charter never came to light — that is — 
not until Andros was at a safe distance ; then, it is said. 
Governor Clark quietly wont to his brother and recovered 
the charter, thanking him for having stolen it so successfully 
from his desk. 

Some people say these charter stories are not true ; that 
they were only "made up." I'm sure I don't know, do 
you? They amuse us at any rate and 


" A little nonsense now an«l then 
Is relished by the best of men." 


The Bofton Newsletter. 

Trom g^tm^ ^t^ >7-^ iWCV^iSi April 14. ^70f 



There were now thirteen colonies, and they numbered 
about two million people. These people were beginning to 
ppeak and think of themselves no longer as Puritans, and 
Roman Catholics, and Episcopalians, and Quakers, but as 
Americans, one and all. 

They were all extremely strict in their religious beliefs, 
Dut persecution of other sects was over. Although it was 
considered absurd to educate a girl, there were already nine 
colleges for boys, which showed that there was some love foi 
There was a printing press in Cambridge, and a public 
library in New York. There was quite a little manufacturing 


in Massachusetts, and quite a little commerce all along the 
coast. Most of the travelling was done on horseback, 
though there were some stage routes. Steam-cara were as 
yet unheard of. The southern colonies, though they were 
richer because of the excellent sioil anil the numerous slaves 
who cultivated the farms, wore very backward in all educa- 
tional work. One of the Governors of Virginia onoe wrote 
to England, saying, I thank God we have no free schools nor 
printing presses here ; and I hope we shall not have them 
for hundreds of years. Slavery and education have never 
gone hand in hand together at any time in the world's 


Next to Ihpii" religion, the Purittms valued education. 
Boston had been settled only six years wheu money was 
appropriated for Harvard College. 

The college building, a square red brick building, with 
low ceilings and little windows, was considered a very ele- 
gant structure at the time. It stands still on the college 
land in ('imibridge, surrounded by the great brick buildings 
which have from time to time, been added to it. To one 
who did not know, perhaps these later buildings, with their 
beautiful carvings, tlicir high walls, their broad staircases 
and halls and doorways, may seem more beautiful than the 
little square red building; but when you remember that 
that little red building was the first college in America, that 
it has stood there for over two hundred years, and that it 
has sent out into the world so many of our greatest and best 
men, you will see why the little red building is prized more 
highly to-day than the far more costly ones by its side. 




Governor Winthrop, one of the first Governors of Massa- 
chusetts, had, living in England, a sister of whom he was very 
fond. lie often wrote letters to her and to her husband, 
who was also a warm friend of Governor Winthrop, begging 
them to leave the old country and come with their children 
to the new colony where there was more than enough of all 
the good things of life. 

The sister, and her husband, too, would gladly have come, 
and indeed were often almost persiuuled to do so ; but they 
were very intelligent people for these times and prized 
education above all things. 

On this account, because there were no colleges in 
America in which her boys could be educated, she hesitated 
year after year. 

Often she would write to her brother, saying that, by and 
by, when the little colony should have means for the educa- 
tion of her boys, she would gladly come. Another thne she 
would write that she believed the value of education was 
above all things, and that therefore she must stay in England 
until the boys were educated. 

All these letters set Governor Winthrop to thinking. 
Would it not be well for the colony to found a college? 


Surely there were other youth than his nephews who would 
be glad of a college education. 

At last a letter came which seemed to set Governor 
Winthrop to work as well as to thinking. This letter, 
written in the early part of 1636, was but another appeal 
from his sister for a college in Massachusetts. It is a 
quaintly written letter, spelled after the fashion of the times. 
In it she says, "If only there were some place of learning 
for youths, it would make me go far nimbler to New Eng- 
lande if God should call me to it than I otherwise shoulde ; 
and I believe a colledge would put noe smal life into the 

In October of this very year. Governor Winthrop had 
convinced those who controlled such things in the colony 
that a college should be built. The money was raised, and 
work on the building was begun at once. 

Soon the Downing family came to America, and very 
soon this son George, of whose education his mother had 
been so careful, graduated from this college. 

One would suppose a man whose mother was such a noble 
woman, and who had been so careful for him, would grow up 
a noble man, and that he would always love and honor her. 
It was not so. Boys grow strangely careless and thoughtless 
sometimes of those who have given their lives for them. 
When in after life his father had died, and his sisters, who 
had been put out as servants in families to assist in earning 



money to keep the brother George in college, had married or 
died, when he had now great wealth, it is said that this 
selfish man, unmindful of all the mother and sisters' had done 
for him, deserted them entirely. 

At last poor Lucy Downing died. In a little bare attic 
room in a tenement house in London, this good woman 
Avhose life had been devoted to her children died from actual 
cold and want of food, while her son, the son she had 
worked the hardest for, sat calmly in his luxurious home, 
too selfish even to be ashamed of his ingratitude. O, shame 
upon such a boy as that 1 



In these early days of the Massachusetts colony, the only 
money was the gold and silver coins which were made in 
England and Spain. These coins were very scarce, so that 
the people had to barter their goods when they wished to 
make a purchase, instead of being able to pay for it in money 
as we do now. That is, if in those days you had wanted to 
buy a yard of ribbon, or a top, or a ball, you would very 
likely have paid for it with butter or eggs — anything 
that you happened to own that the storekeeper was willing 
to take. 

But as the people were growing more and more in number, 
and trade increased, this kind of bartering grew very 
troublesome. The people needed some sort of money; and 
so a law was passed, a kind of coin was decided upon, and 
Captain John Hull was made mint -master. The largest of 
these coins had stamped upon them a picture of a pine tree. 
This is why tliey were called " Pine-Tree" shillings. 



As payment for his work, it was decided that the mint- 
master should liave one out of every twenty coins he made. 

Captain John Hull was an honest man ; and although he put 
aside for himself only one in every twenty coins, his strong 
boxes got, before many years had passed, to be very, very 

Captain Hull had a daughter, a fine, plump, hearty girl, 
with whom young Samuel Sewell fell in love. As Samuel 
was a young man of good character, industrious and honest, 
Captain Hull readily gave his consent to their marriage. 
* Yes, you may take her," he said in his rough way, "and 
you'll find her a heavy burden enough." 

In due time the weddin<j: dav arrived. There were John 
Hull, dressed in a plum-colored coat, with bright silver 
buttons made of the Pine-Tree shillings, the bridegroom, 
dressed in a fine purple coat and gold lace waistcoat, big 
silver buckles on his shoes, *di\d last, but by no means least, 
the fair bride herself, looking as plump and smiling and rosy 
as a big red apple. 

After the marriage ceremony was over, Captain Hull 
whispered to his men servants, who at once left the room, 
to return ? yon with a great pair of scales. Everybody 
wondered what could be going to happen. 

"Daughter," said the mint-master, "get into one side of 
these scales." Then turning to his servants and pointing to 
f» big iron-bound box, he added, "Bring hither the chest." 



The servants tugged and pulled at it, but it was all they 
could do to get it across the floor. Then Captain Hull 
unlocked it and threw open the cover. 

The guests stood breathless, for behold ! the chest was 
full of bright, shining Pine-Tree shillings. 

" Put them into the other side of the scales, lively now, 
said the mint-master, laughing as he saw the look of amaze- 
ment on the faces of the people. 

Jingle, jingle, went the shillings as handful after handful 
were thrown in, till, big and plump as she was, the fair 
young bride was lifted from the floor. 

"There, son Sewell sail the hone t mml^master, "take 
these shillings fc r m> d ui^htci •* portion Use her kindly, 
and thank God forlicr It isn t e\ery wife that's worth her 
weij!;ht in silvei 

One more ylunce at the colonial customs before we leave 
these times. The laws concerning the keeping of a New Eng- 
land Sal)bath were very severe. No manner of work was al- 
lowed to lie done ; no visiting, no playing, no guyety of any 
kind were permitted ; one man, it is said, was l»roiight to trial 
and fined for kissing his wife on a Sabbath morning. 

Public worship took place in what was called the mectin<r- 
house, the place where all meetings for attending to the 
town's business were held. 

Slowly and solemnly the families all walked to chitrcn, 
coming sometimes for miles from the country around. 


On reaching the church, the men took their places on one 
side of the aisle, and the women took theirs on the other. 
The children, too, sat all by themselves, and there was a 
man appointed to keep them quiet. 

This man carried a long stick with a hard nob at one end 
and a little feather brush on the other. 

With the nob he knocked the heads of the men if they 
chanced to grow sleepy, and with the feather he would tickle 
the faces of the women. 

I shouldn't wonder if he had to use this rod pretty often 
on men, women, and children all ; for the sermons were 
very long, sometimes lasting whole hours, and they were 
timed by an hour-glass which stood upon the high pulpit. 

As you read in the Indian stories, the men brought their 
muskets to the meeting-houses, that they might have them 
ready in case of attack. 

The meeting-houses were not warmed even in very cold 
weather ; the people had an idea that some way they were 
better Christians if they bore all these discomforts without a 

Soon the people began carrying hot bricks and stones to 
keep their feet and hands from freezing ; and by and by 
they carried little foot stoves. These stoves were little tin 
boxes, with holes in the sides, a cover, a door, and handles 
with which to carry them. In these boxes were put livo 
coals, and so the fire would last during the whole sermon. 


As books were very scarce, the minister would read off 
one line of the hymn, which the peoi)le would sing to some 
old tune ; then another line would ])e read and sung, then 
another and another, until the whole hymn was sung. 

When the service was over, all walked solemnly home 
again. The fathers and mothers were very strict on this 
Sabbath day, and I fear many and many a little boy and girl 
dreaded to have this -ong, dreary day come, and were very 
glad when it was over. 

I am sure we are glad people have got over the idea that 
Sunday should be such a dismal, sober day. I am sure the 
heavenly Father is much more pleased to see the children 
spending Ilis day happily in their homes with their fathers 
and mothers and little sisters and brothers. 

Next Sabl)ath when you enter your pleasant Sunday- 
school, and find your little school-mates and your teacher 
so glad to see you all, just think for a minute of those poor 
little boys and girls who had no pretty books and cards, no 
pretty little songs, and who were made to pass the whole 
day without even being allowed to laugh with one another. 

The Cat dolb'plaj-, 
And after sin y. 

The Dog will bite 
A thief at nighL 

An Eagle's flight* 
Is out of sight. 

The idle Fool 

Is whipt at school* 



Speaking of these little sober-faced children of the 
colonial times, reminds me of the queer little books from 
which they learned to read. 

I wish you could see one I have. It is very, very old 
now, its leaves are all yellow and musty, and I fear that 
before long ther will fall in pieces like an old dead leaf. 

It is a little square book with l)lue paper covers, on which 
is an odd looking picture of two children kneeling to say 



their prayers. In the book are several little verses and 
hymns sind prayers, a long list of questions and answers 
from the Bihic, the ten coiniuaiidinents, and then some odd 
little verses, with i>ietures whieh are odder still. On the 
otlier pajro lue ii few of them, wliich I am sure you will any 
;ire very funny. 

Tlie ri'st of tlit^ primer is taken up with the catechism, 
and several questions like, who was the first man? the first 
woman? the first murderer? who huiltthoark? who was the 
oldest man ? who was struck dead for lying ? and many other 
questions of a like nature. 

If you could see this strange little book with its course 
paper, its poor j)rint, and its wretched little pictures, you 
would think your readinff books to-day are perfect art 


You rciiiemher Ihhv very plainly the Puritans <lressed at 
the time of tlieir letivini; En<^l!iinl. Then the men wore 
their hair shaved so closely that thej' were called " Round- 
heads." The women, too, all dressed very plainly, in 
homespun dresses mid stiffly starched white aprons. 

There was a time when there was a fine on any man who 
should wear his hair lonfTi and if a women wore any sort of 
jewelry, she was looked ui)on as a most wicked creature, 
one upon whom the punishment of heaven would surely fall. 


As time went on, and the Puritans mixed more and more 
with other people, these severe styles gave way, until at last 
the Boston folks of the Puritan colony were as gay in their 
dress as were the Cavaliers of Virginia. 

In a history of America written for young people by 
Abl^ey Sage Kichardson, there is such a good description of 
these peo))le as they dressed at. this time, just before the 
Revolution, of which we are going so soon to hear, that I 
think we nmst stop and read it. 

You remember the rude log cabin in which these first 
Puritans who came to Cape Cod Bay lived. Compare that 
rude cabin with Miss Kichard son's description of Governor 
Hutchinson's house in Boston as it looked in the Revo- 
lutionary time: "It was a fine brick house, three stories 
high. If we enter the house we shall find a large hall with 
massive staircases heavily carved, the floor laid in elegant 
colored marl)le or diflerent woods. 

" The walls are painted, there are fluted columns support- 
ing the ceiling, and there is heavy mahogany furniture set 
around in stately grandeur." 

Speaking of the dress of the men, she says, "Do you see 
that elegant looking man ? He would hardly be laughed at 
now and called a Roundhead. The Puritans now dress as 
the English do. Thoy wear powdered wigs, or else they 
powder their own hair and tie it in a long queue behind. 

"Look at that gentleman standing in his doorway I He 


has on a red velvet cap, with an inside cap of white linen 
which turns over the edge of the velvet two or three inches ; 
a blue damask dressing gown lined with sky-blue silk ; a 
white satin waistcoat with deep embroidered flaps ; black 
satin breeches with long white silk stockings, and red 
morocco slippers. 

^' When he tiroes out into the street he will chan^^e his velvet 
cap for a three-cornered hat ; his flowered brocade dressing- 
gown for a gold-laced coat of red or blue l)roa(lcloth, with 
deep lace ruflles at the wrists ; put a sword at his side, and 
wear a pair of shoes with great silver buckles. 

" Let us see how the women of the same time used to dieess. 
Here is a lady dressing for a dinner party. First the barber 
comes and does up her hair in frizzles and puflTs and curls 
and rolls, one on top of the other, until it all looks like a 
pyramid or a tower. She has on a brocade dress, green 
ground with great flowers on it, looped over a pink satin 
skirt. Her dress is very low in the neck, and is greatly 
trimmed with lace. 

'^ It is very tightly pulled over a vStiflThoop which sticks out 
on both sides so far that she has to go in at the door side- 
ways. The heels of her low shoes are very high, and she 
wears beautiful silk stockings. That is the way she dresses 
for a party ; but how does she dress at home ? 

" At home she wears a cap and a pretty gown, a neat 
white apron, and a muslin kerchief over her neck." 


"This is the way tlie rich city people dress. Let us tiikr 
a look at the country people. The farmer's wives weai 
checked linen dresses in summer, and strong home-spun 
woolen dresses in the winter, with clean white aprons and 
kcchiefs. The farmers wear stout leather breeches, checked 
shirts find frocks. Every day but Sundsiys the working- 
men wear lesither aprons, and are not at all ashamed of 
them either." 

Now that you have an idea of about how many people 
there were in the colonies, what business they were engaged 
in, the sort of homes they had, and the way the people, rich 
and poor, dressed, I think you are ready to begin the stories 
of the Revolution. 


yHANKgqiviNQ Pay. 

Over the raging ocean. 

From a country far away, 
There came a band of wanderers 

One bleak November day. 

The clouds were wild and stormy. 

The wind blew like a gale. 
It shattered spar and mainmast, 

And in tatters tore the sail. 

But in the crowded cabin 

Were sturdy hearts and strong, 

Undaunted by the tempest 
Unbaffled by the storm. 

Whence came these loyal peoi)le ? 

Wliat 80u<yht they in this land ? 
Where far and bleak before them 

Stretched miles of barren sand. 

The Landing. 

In a country far over the ocean 
A great many years ago 

A brave band of worshippers gathered 
To pray to the God we know. 

Their king was a haughty monarch. 
He ruled with an iron hand, 


No love for the poor did he have ; 
He exhiled tlie little band. 

The shores of New England were barren, 

But rich in their eyes were they ; 
For there could they stay and worship, 

And to their God they could pray. 

In their staunch little bark, the Mayflower, 
AVhich bravely withstood every shock. 

They sailed the tempestuous ocean. 
And landed at Plymouth Rock. 

TiiK Famine. 

Sad and dreary was the winter, 

Frost and snow came on apace ; 
Poor and scanty was their raiment i 

Famine stared them in the fa(;e. 

Death, the greatest of all reapers. 

Entered then their little band ; 
Merciful, and yet relentless. 

Bore them to the Shadow-land. 

Yet the brave true hearts ne'er murmured, 

But a day for fast was set. 
And they prayed the Good Creator 

That their wants might soon be met. 


And their captain, grim and hoary, 
Stout of heart and strong of hand, 

Though the days were dark and dreary. 
Comforted the little band. 

The First Thanksgiving. 

*Tis the morn of the first Thanksgiving. 

The air is crisp and cold. 
The snow lies in drifts in the highways. 

The wind is cutting and bold. 

From each lowly hut and cottage 

Unto the house of prayer, 
"With rifles upon theii shoulders 

The pilgrims assemble there. 

The dark, dreary winter is ended, 
The spring with its soft, gentle rain. 

And the warm, sunny days of the summer 
Had ripened the much needed grain. 

Now each garner is hurting with plenty, 
Each heart, too, is filled with great joy. 

This winter no famine will haunt them, 
No terror their thoughts will employ, 

In the bleak little church in the village 
Are gathered stern men and fair maids. 

Their praises are joyfully ringing 
And echo o'er high hills and glades. 


Thus passed tlie first day of Thanksgiving;, 
With thanks that e'er came from the heart ; 

And n6 matter how humble his station, 
Each person in them took his part. 

Thanksgiving Day, To-Day. 

Of all the glad days of the year 

Thanksgiving Day's the best. 
Then fun and joy run riot, 

And sorrow is at rest. 

We keep the day with feasting. 

And enjoy it with a will, 
From the poor man in the valley 

To the rich man on the hill. 

What tiiough the wind be chilly? 

And clouds the sky may fill, 
And all without be dreary. 

If the heart is happy still. 

Then let us keep Thanksgiving, 

And, looking through the years. 
We'll lab(jr ever onward 

Unharmed by doubts or fears. 

— M. J. B. 

To avoid fine, this boc^ should be returned on 
or before the date last stamped below